Forests

Adaptation options proposed in the literature

View adaptation options by reference

Sub-system Target areas of adaptation General vulnerability Detailed vulnerability Adaptation option References
Bio-physical Reduce stressors Species invasion Invasions by non-native species Proactively control invasive species (plants, insects, diseases)
Bio-physical Reduce stressors Species invasion Invasions by non-native species Proactively control the origin of trees planted in urban context (select tree species best suited to local conditions and desired ecosystem services). Not well adapted and stressed trees are more susceptible to pests and can be a route of entry for exotic pests (impact natural forests)
Bio-physical Reduce stressors Forest resilience Decreased health and viability of forest ecosystems due to cumulative impacts of multiple stressors Integrated multi-sector land management to reduce current stress factors and their cumulative impacts: 1) Regulate atmospheric pollutants or CO2 emissions or use forest management as a CO2 sink. 2) Manage tourism, recreation and grazing impacts. 3) Restore degraded areas to maintain genetic diversity and promote ecosystem health. 4) Reduce landscape fragmentation.
Bio-physical Reduce stressors Forest resilience Decreased health and viability of forest ecosystems due to cumulative impacts of multiple stressors Work with others to ensure that stressors outside the control of the forest manager are minimized
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Forest productivity Decreased forest growth Modify seed transfer zones
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Forest productivity Decreased forest growth Plant alternative genotypes or new species in anticipation of future climate
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Forest productivity Decreased forest growth Focus silvicultural investments in areas projected to have relatively stable climates
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Forest productivity Decreased forest growth Planting logged sites with species or populations expected to be adapted to the new climate
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Forest productivity Decreased forest growth Employ vegetation control techniques to offset drought
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Forest productivity Decreased forest growth Enhance forest growth through forest fertilization
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Forest productivity Decreased forest growth Plant seedlings from a range of seed sources, particularly from more southern or lower-elevation populations; plant genetically modified species and identify more suitable genotypes
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Forest productivity Decreased forest growth Adapt silvicultural rules and practices to ensure the growth rate of trees is maintained or enhanced. For instance, use pre-commercial thinning or selectively remove suppressed damage or poor quality individuals to increase resource availability to the remaining trees.
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Forest productivity Populations or species are no longer suited to site conditions Underplant with other species or genotypes where the current advanced regeneration is unacceptable
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Forest productivity Populations or species are no longer suited to site conditions Reduce the rotation age followed by planting to speed the establishment of better adapted species
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Develop 'disturbance-smart' landscapes
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Develop forest harvest and regeneration patterns that generate a diversity of stand ages and compositions over landscapes to reduce forest vulnerability to future insect and disease outbreaks
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Actively manage forest pests
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Vary the shape and size of clearcuts, and leave patches or stream buffers to reduce vulnerability to potential for increased windthrow disturbance
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Plant species mixes that occur following natural disturbances
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Employ silvicultural techniques to promote forest productivity and increase stand vigour to lower the susceptibility to drought or insect attack
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Plant genotypes or species that are tolerant of drought, insects and/or disease and fire
Bio-physical Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Use prescribed burning or other fuel treatments to reduce fire risk and reduce forest vulnerability to insect outbreaks
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest productivity Populations or species are no longer suited to site conditions Plant broader and new mixes of tree species over landscapes
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest productivity Populations or species are no longer suited to site conditions Plant species over a broader range of environments
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest productivity Populations or species are no longer suited to site conditions Assisted range expansion: regional expansion of northern, inland, or upper elevational limit of species for reforestation to track climatic niches
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Disturbances Change in forest structure, composition or cover Maximize forested areas by quickly regenerating any degraded areas
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Disturbances Change in forest structure, composition or cover Allow forests to regenerate naturally following disturbances when possible
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Disturbances Decrease in forest sinks and increased CO2 emissions from northern forested ecosystems due to increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Enhance forest recovery after disturbances
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Manage for the maintenance of complexity and diversity of responses to changing conditions
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Maintain or restore natural fire regimes where historical fire cycles have been disrupted by past fire exclusion and made them more vulnerable to severe future fires
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest resilience Alteration of plant and animal distribution Minimize fragmentation of habitat and maintain connectivity
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest resilience Alteration of plant and animal distribution Maintain a diverse and heterogeneous landscape (mixture of stand age, composition and structure) by applying various silvicultural techniques
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest resilience Alteration of plant and animal distribution Study the synchrony between trees and animals (phenology of the development) both in parasitic and mutualistic relationships with a focus on keystone species
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest resilience Alteration of plant and animal distribution Minimize density of permanent road networks and decommission and rehabilitate roads to maximize productive forest areas
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest resilience Alteration of plant and animal distribution Practice low-intensity forestry and prevent conversion to plantations
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest resilience Alteration of plant and animal distribution Protect most highly threatened species ex situ. For instance, create artificial reserves or aboreta to preserve rare species
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest resilience Alteration of plant and animal distribution Assist changes in the distribution of species by introducing them to new areas
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest resilience Alteration of plant and animal distribution Maintain representative forest types across environmental gradients in reserves; protect forest largely undisturbed by human activities; protect climate refugia at multiple scales
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest resilience Alteration of plant and animal distribution Identify and protect functional groups and keystone species
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest resilience Alteration of plant and animal distribution Use silvicultural systems that maintain genetic, species and landscape diversity
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest resilience Alteration of plant and animal distribution Develop corridors for species migration and habitat protection; provide buffer zones for adjustment of reserve boundaries; consider riparian habitats and ecological transitional zones
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest resilience Decreased health and viability of forest ecosystems due to cumulative impacts of multiple stressors Maintain diversity in genes, species, and ecosystem conditions
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest resilience Decreased health and viability of forest ecosystems due to cumulative impacts of multiple stressors Implement restoration options to recover structural or compositional heterogeneity lost through past management practices
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest resilience Decreased health and viability of forest ecosystems due to cumulative impacts of multiple stressors Protect high evolutionary potential areas, including biodiversity hotspots
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest resilience Increased soil erosion due to increased precipitation and melting permafrost Adopt practices such as maintaining, decommissioning, rehabilitating roads to minimize sediment runoff due to increased precipitation and melting of permafrost
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest resilience Increased soil erosion due to increased precipitation and melting permafrost Limit harvesting operations to the winter to minimize road construction and soil disturbance
Bio-physical Enhance adaptive capacity Forest resilience Increased soil erosion due to increased precipitation and melting permafrost Minimize soil disturbance through low impact harvesting activities
Human Reduce stressors Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Decrease in forest sinks and increased CO2 emissions from northern forested ecosystems due to declining forest growth and productivity Decommission and rehabilitate roads to maximize forest sinks
Human Reduce stressors Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Decrease in forest sinks and increased CO2 emissions from northern forested ecosystems due to declining forest growth and productivity Enhance forest growth and carbon sequestration through forest fertilization
Human Reduce stressors Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Decrease in forest sinks and increased CO2 emissions from northern forested ecosystems due to declining forest growth and productivity Minimize density of permanent road network to maximize forest sinks
Human Reduce stressors Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Decrease in forest sinks and increased CO2 emissions from northern forested ecosystems due to declining forest growth and productivity Minimize risk of the forest ecosystem becoming a net source of carbon
Human Reduce stressors Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Decrease in forest sinks and increased CO2 emissions from northern forested ecosystems due to declining forest growth and productivity Modify thinning practices (timing, intensity) and rotation length to increase growth and turnover of carbon
Human Reduce stressors Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Decreased health and viability of forest ecosystems due to cumulative impacts of multiple stressors Conduct an assessment of greenhouse gas emissions produced by internal operations
Human Reduce stressors Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Forest fragmentation or forest landbase lost Allocate forest landbase using a triad approach to landscape zoning; allow high-intensity forestry in productive areas projected to remain relatively stable in climate
Human Reduce stressors Disturbances Decrease in forest sinks and increased CO2 emissions from northern forested ecosystems due to increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Decrease impact of natural disturbances on carbon stocks by managing fire and forest pests
Human Reduce stressors Disturbances Decrease in forest sinks and increased CO2 emissions from northern forested ecosystems due to increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Identify areas where deforestation may be avoided
Human Reduce stressors Disturbances Decrease in forest sinks and increased CO2 emissions from northern forested ecosystems due to increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Identify areas where forests have been degraded and can be rehabilitated
Human Reduce stressors Disturbances Decrease in forest sinks and increased CO2 emissions from northern forested ecosystems due to increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Minimize soil disturbance through low-impact harvesting activities
Human Reduce stressors Disturbances Decrease in forest sinks and increased CO2 emissions from northern forested ecosystems due to increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Practice low-intensity forestry and prevent conversion to plantations
Human Reduce stressors Disturbances Decrease in forest sinks and increased CO2 emissions from northern forested ecosystems due to increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Reduce forest degradation and avoid deforestation
Human Reduce stressors Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Develop the bioenergy market using wood from disturbed areas
Human Reduce stressors Socio-economic resilience Dependence on vulnerable goods or services Develop marketing strategies aimed at recasting wood products as having climate-friendly, carbon-sequestering properties
Human Reduce stressors Socio-economic resilience Lack of flexibility Provide opportunities for forest management activities to be included in carbon trading systems
Human Reduce sensitivity Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Alteration of plant and animal distribution Conduct reciprocal transplant experiments for key species
Human Reduce sensitivity Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Alteration of plant and animal distribution Conduct research comparing tree species growth and regeneration at the margins of species ranges
Human Reduce sensitivity Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Alteration of plant and animal distribution Develop experiments (e.g., planting and silvicultural trials) that test management approaches for enhancing resilience or facilitating
Human Reduce sensitivity Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Alteration of plant and animal distribution Study changes in ecosystem transition areas
Human Reduce sensitivity Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Alteration of plant and animal distribution Develop a gene management program to maintain diverse gene pools
Human Reduce sensitivity Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Decreased forest growth Focus management on currently productive sites and those likely to remain more productive under future climates, and reduce efforts on poor sites
Human Reduce sensitivity Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Decreased forest growth Include climate variables in growth and yield models in order to have more specific predictions on the future development of forests
Human Reduce sensitivity Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems More/earlier snow melt resulting in changes in the timing of peak flow and volume in streams Examine the suitability of current road construction standards and stream crossings to ensure they adequately mitigate the potential impacts on fish and potable water of changes in timing and volume of peak flows
Human Reduce sensitivity Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Populations or species are no longer suited to site conditions Bank surplus seed
Human Reduce sensitivity Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Populations or species are no longer suited to site conditions Assist population expansion: movement of populations within a species range to improve productivity and health in new climates
Human Reduce sensitivity Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Populations or species are no longer suited to site conditions Use genomics approaches to generate genetic data and molecular tools for i) identifying forest tree species and populations that are vulnerable to climate change, ii) supporting breeding programs and migration initiatives, and iii) refining models used to predict species distribution and productivity under climate change.
Human Reduce sensitivity Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Populations or species are no longer suited to site conditions Adapt silvicultural rules and practices to maintain optimum species-site relationships
Human Reduce sensitivity Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Populations or species are no longer suited to site conditions Review genetic guidelines for reforestation: relax rules governing the movement of seed stocks from one area to another; examine options for modifying seed transfer limits and systems
Human Reduce sensitivity Change in goods and services provided by forest ecosystems Populations or species are no longer suited to site conditions Design and establish long-term multi-species/seedlot trials to test improved genotypes across a diverse array of climatic and latitudinal environments
Human Reduce sensitivity Accessing the resources Forest closure Re-assess regional fire danger and prepare for reduced harvesting periods
Human Reduce sensitivity Accessing the resources Road access Prepare for reduced winter harvest
Human Reduce sensitivity Accessing the resources Road access Redesign roads and trails to withstand increased rainfall intensity
Human Reduce sensitivity Accessing the resources Road access Re-assess river and stream peak flows and link them to bridge and road design standards
Human Reduce sensitivity Accessing the resources Road access Re-assess terrain stability maps in light of changing ground conditions associated with climate change
Human Reduce sensitivity Accessing the resources Road access Avoid constructing roads in landslide-prone terrain where increased precipitation and melting of permafrost may increase hazard of slope failure
Human Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Include climate change considerations when planning, constructing, or replacing infrastructure
Human Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Include disturbances in management rules and forest management plans; develop an enhanced capacity for risk management; apply ecosystem management approaches
Human Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Develop fire-smart landscapes around communities; develop strategies at the wildland-urban interface
Human Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances At the operational level, plan logging, salvage logging and environmental protection with disturbance-triggered contingencies in mind
Human Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Breed for pest resistance and for a wider tolerance to a range of climate stresses and extremes in specific genotypes
Human Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Protect higher value areas from fire through fire-smart techniques
Human Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Adjust harvest schedules to harvest stands most vulnerable to insect outbreaks
Human Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Reduce disease losses through sanitation cuts that remove infected trees
Human Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Develop technology to use altered wood quality and tree species composition, modify wood processing technology
Human Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Account for disturbance losses at all stages of planning
Human Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Prepare for variable timber supply
Human Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Plan landscapes to minimize the spread of insects and diseases
Human Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Increase the proportion of salvage logging as part of overall sustainable harvest levels
Human Reduce sensitivity Disturbances Increased frequency and severity of forest disturbances Shorten the rotation length to decrease the period of stand vulnerability to disturbances and to facilitate change to more suitable species
Human Reduce sensitivity Species invasion Invasions by non-native species Enhance the early detection and response strategy associated with non-native invasive species
Human Reduce sensitivity Species invasion Invasions by non-native species Adopt policies to ensure that disruption of ecosystems by non-native species is avoided to maintain integrity
Human Reduce sensitivity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Development of forest management plans that reduce vulnerability of forests and forest-dependent communities to climate change
Human Reduce sensitivity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Establish objectives for the future forest under climate change
Human Reduce sensitivity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Make choices about the preferred tree species composition for the future
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Increase awareness about the potential impact of climate change and encourage proactive actions, e.g., climate change impacts on the fire regime and proactive actions in regard to fuel management and community protection
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Establish stronger relationships between scientific researchers and management to help identify resilience thresholds for key species and ecosystem processes, determine which thresholds will be exceeded, prioritize projects with a high probability of success and identify species and vegetation structures tolerant of increased disturbances
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Enhance awareness and understanding of climate change in the forest sector: communications, debate, education
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Enhance dialogue amongst stakeholder groups to establish priorities for action on climate change adaptation in the forest sector
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Support research on climate change, climate impacts and climate change adaptations and increase resources for basic climate change impacts and adaptation science
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Increase technical understanding by developing educational material for employees and stakeholders
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Combine ecosystem process models with spatial landscape models. Link ecosystem process models to spatially explicit landscape models
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Delineate bioclimatic envelopes and project changes
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Develop process-based models of species range shifts and ecosystem changes
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Historical information from extreme climate effects may provide some information about cumulative responses to climate conditions outside the bounds of recent history
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Encourage societal adaptation
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Enhance capacity to undertake integrated assessments of system vulnerabilities at various scales
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Review forest policies, forest planning, forest management approaches and society's institutions to assess our ability to achieve social objectives under climate change
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Support knowledge exchange, technology transfer, capacity building and information sharing on climate change; maintain or improve capacity for communications and networking
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Incorporate new knowledge about the future climate and forest management plans and policies
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Include climate variables in growth and yield models and incorporate climate change effects into long-term timber supply analysis and forest management plans
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Expand conservation education programs to include climate change
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Agree on standardized climate scenarios for analysis
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Foster learning and innovation and conduct research to determine when and where to implement adaptive responses
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of awareness or poor access to information Anticipate variability and change and conduct vulnerability assessments at a regional scale
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of flexibility Engage the public in a dialogue on values and management under a changing climate
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of flexibility Remove barriers and develop incentives to adapt to climate change; encourage local and community-based adaptation planning, informed by local knowledge and empowered with more local control
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of flexibility Provide incentives and remove barriers to enhancing carbon sinks and reducing greenhouse gas emissions
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of flexibility Involve the public in an assessment of forest management adaptation options
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of flexibility Provide long-term tenures to encourage long-term considerations within short-term decisions
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of flexibility Incorporate climate change into land use plans and consider the possibility of land use changes at specific locales (forest to agriculture and vice versa)
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of flexibility Prepare for increases in wildfire activity
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Lack of flexibility Redesign and/or implement society's institutions that facilitate cost-effective and economically efficient adaptation and that provide forest managers with the tools necessary to achieve forest management objectives
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Increased uncertainty Incorporate long-term climate change into wildland fire planning
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Increased uncertainty Develop flexible forest management policies, plans and practices that are capable of responding to changes
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Increased uncertainty Practice adaptive management: rigorously combine management, research, monitoring, and means of changing practices so that credible information is gained and management activities are modified by experience; include risk assessment practices
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Increased uncertainty Study population responses to climate change with a focus on growth, reproductive processes, recruitment rates, mortality, and demography, particularly for ecologically significant (keystone and dominant) species and economically important species
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Increased uncertainty Monitor changes in hydrologic regimes, such as shifts in seasonal precipitation patterns (i.e., rain vs. snow) and changes in precipitation intensity, in relation to their impact on ecosystems, vegetation, and tree growth
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Increased uncertainty Monitor changes in key processes (e.g., nutrient and hydrological cycles) for vulnerable ecosystems, and measure their effects on vegetation
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Increased uncertainty Adopt risk assessment and adaptive management principles
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Increased uncertainty Measure, monitor and report on indicators of climate change and sustainable forest management to determine the state of the forest and identify when critical thresholds are reached
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Increased uncertainty Develop flexible forest management plans and policies that are capable of responding to changes
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Increased uncertainty Evaluate the adequacy of existing environmental and biological monitoring networks for tracking the impacts of climate change on forest ecosystems, identify inadequacies and gaps in these networks and identify options to address them
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Increased uncertainty Modify objectives for sustainable forest management, including reduction of expectations and the means we use to achieve them
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Increased uncertainty Monitor to determine when and what changes are occurring
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Dependence on vulnerable goods or services Evaluate recreational impact on ecosystems under a changing climate
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Dependence on vulnerable goods or services Expand recreational opportunities across all four seasons
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Dependence on vulnerable goods or services Adopt a holistic management approach such as ecosystem management that balances timber and non-timber goods and services
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Dependence on vulnerable goods or services Diversify economy (forest, regional)
Human Enhance adaptive capacity Socio-economic resilience Dependence on vulnerable goods or services Diversify society
Date modified: