Canadian Forest Service Publications
Frost and other climate-related damage of forest trees in the prairie provinces. 1993. Hiratsuka, Y.; Zalasky, H. Forestry Canada, Northwest Region, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, Alberta. Information Report NOR-X-331.
Available from: Northern Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 11782
Frost and other climate-related damage of forest trees in the Canadian prairie provinces are described in terms of their cause and damage, symptoms and diagnosis, and prevention and control. Types of frost damage, winter desiccation, red belt, needle droop of red pine, drought damage, snow and ice glaze damage as well as wind, hail and lightning damage are addressed. Photographs are used to illustrate symptoms and aid in the diagnosis of these kinds of damage.