Canadian Forest Service Publications
Development of sampling techniques for the spruce budmoth, Zeiraphera canadensis Mut. and Free. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). 1987. Turgeon, J.J.; Régnière, J. The Canadian Entomologist 119: 239-249.
Available from: Laurentian Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 14436
Available from the Journal's Web site. †
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The spatial and statistical distribution of Zeiraphera canadensis Mut. and Free. (spruce budmoth) within the crown of white spruce (< 4 m high) was investigated in northern New Brunswick. A 15-cm branch segment, measured distally from the scales of the branch’s apical growth and taken from the upper one-third of the crown, is considered an adequate sample unit for density estimates of spruce budmoth eggs and larvae. Sample sizes required to estimate spruce budmoth larval densities with given levels of precision and confidence were determined. A sequential sampling plan to classify spruce budmoth populations as low or high (potentially leading to growth reduction and deformed leaders in white spruce) was also developed.