Canadian Forest Service Publications
Decay, stains, and beetles in ice-storm-damaged forests: A review. 2001. Hopkin, A.A.; Greifenhagen, S.; Holland, J. The Forestry Chronicle 77: 605-611.
Available from: Great Lakes Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 18614
A potential long-term threat to ice-damaged forests exists from decays, stains, and wood-boring insects. Damage to large branches or to the main stem can result in heartwood decay, particularly in older or less healthy trees. However, in branch stubs with a diameter of less than 7.5 cm, decay progresses to only a limited degree. Stem damage is not usual after ice storms. However, sunscald is common in sugar maple stands with damaged crowns, sometimes resulting in infection by the sap rot fungus Cerrena unicolor. Fungi of the genera Ophiostoma, Ceratocystis and Ceratocystiopsis (blue stains) can cause significant staining to standing timber in damaged softwood stands; however, these fungi do not cause structural damage. Bark beetles (scolytidae) and wood-borers (buprestidae and cermabycidae), which attack damaged trees in northeastern North America are normally secondary invaders. However, thinning of the canopy from ice damage could cause increased infestation by these insects.