Canadian Forest Service Publications
Ethylene metabolism in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) shoots during the year. 2002. Klintborg, A.; Eklund, L.; Little, C.H.A. Tree Physiology 22: 59-66.
Available from: Atlantic Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 19749
Ethylene evolution, concentrations of 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and ACC conjugates, activities of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase, and cambial growth as measured by tracheid production were monitored from November to July in 1-year-old shoots, and between July and September in current-year shoots, of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Needles, buds and four stem parts (cortex, phloem, cambial region and mature xylem) were surveyed. Ethylene evolution was quantified by gas chromatography. Free ACC and bound ACC (after acidic hydrolysis of ACC conjugates) were quantified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, with [2H]ACC as an internal standard. Activities of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase were measured in crude protein extracts.
We detected high activities of ACC synthase in needles and buds, but not in stem fractions except the phloem. In July, during the period of intensive shoot growth, we found ACC only in buds and needles. In contrast, ACC oxidase activity was high in stem tissues, particularly in the cambial region during the period of rapid tracheid production, but no ACC oxidase activity was detected in needles and buds. Nevertheless, needles evolved large amounts of ethylene. Ethylene was produced by all stem fractions, and the peak rate of ethylene evolution in the cambial region coincided with the period of maximal tracheid production. Conjugated ACC was present in every fration except mature xylem. The concentration of conjugated ACC decreased when rates of tracheid production and ethylene evolution were high, suggesting that conjugated ACC may serve as a source for ACC in the cambial region. The regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in Scots pine shoots is discussed.