Canadian Forest Service Publications
White spruce establishment in two boreal Ontario mixedwoods: 13-year results. 2003. Sutton, R.F.; Weldon, T.P. The Forestry Chronicle 79: 127-131.
Available from: Great Lakes Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 21499
An experiment to investigate techniques for establishing white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) in boreal Ontario mixedwood was begun in 1985 in Oates Twp. Eight 25-tree plots were established in each of nine treatments: three mechanical site preparation treatments (none, disk- trenching, and toothed-blading) in combination with three kinds of chemical weed control (none, Velpar L® at the time of planting, and Vision® during the second growing season). The experiment was repeated the following year in the adjacent township of Oswald. The mechanical treatments were applied as planned, but the herbicide treatments deviated somewhat from the plan. Fifth-year results were reported in this journal in 1995. In the eighth growing season, a ground-spray release treatment with Vision® was applied to four randomly selected 25-tree plots in each original treatment. Performance of white spruce after 13 growing seasons was significantly influenced by site preparation: survival averaged 65 and 79% without release in the blading and trenching treatments, respectively, and 22% in the untreated control; with release, survival averaged 74 and 80% in the blading and trenching treatments, respectively, and 24% in the untreated control. Growth was greatest in the bladed treatment, poorest by far in the untreated control. The ineffectiveness of herbicides in these experiments is surprising in view of successes elsewhere. The modest response to release was significant for 13th -year increment.