Canadian Forest Service Publications
Rate of development, reproduction, and mass-rearing of Apanteles fumiferanae Vier. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) under controlled conditions. 1988. Nealis, V.G.; Fraser, S. The Canadian Entomologist 120(3): 197-204.
Available from: Great Lakes Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 21545
The temperature-dependent rate of development of the post-diapause larval and pupal stages of the spruce budworm parasitoid, Apanteles fumiferanae Vier., was estimated under controlled conditions. Parasitoid larvae required 289.0 degree-days (DD) above a threshold of 8.1ºC to complete development and the pupae required 106.2 DD above a threshold of 9.6ºC to complete development. Longevity of the adult wasp at several temperatures also was examined. Female wasps lived longer than male wasps at all temperatures. Wasps tended to mate more readily under natural than under artificial light conditions. Newly emerged female A. fumiferanae had few, if any, mature eggs in their ovaries. The number of mature eggs increased to a peak of 40–75 eggs, 4–12 days after eclosion of the adult. The pattern in number of ovipositions was similar to this pattern of egg availability. The daily rate of oviposition, however, was only about one-quarter the number of eggs available. These biological measurements are discussed in view of the development of a mass-rearing technique for this parasitoid.