Glossary: C

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Term Definition French
Cache A place for storing seedlings close to the planting site. Cache
Callus Thickening and hardening of the cambium tissues which occur as part of a plant's response to a wound. Cal
Cambium Fast-growing tissue that produces wood and phloem (vascular cambium) and bark (cork cambium). Cambium
Canadian Council of Forest Ministers A forum for the federal, provincial and territorial governments to work cooperatively, through their respective ministers, in addressing major areas of common interest concerning Canada’s forests. The Canadian Forest Service of Natural Resources Canada serves as the council’s secretariat. Conseil canadien des ministres des forêts
Canadian Standards Association (CSA) A leading developer of standards and codes, including an internationally recognized forestry certification system. The CSA is a not-for-profit, membership-based association. Association canadienne de normalisation (CSA)
Canker Lesion of the cambium and the living bark of trees that alters and kills these tissues in a localized area. Chancre
Canopy The more or less continuous cover of branches and foliage formed collectively by the crowns of adjacent trees. Couvert forestier
Canopy class syn. canopy cover class, crown class Any class into which crops or stands may be divided on the basis of the degree of closure. Classe de couvert
Canopy density The amount of foliar cover, combining the extent of canopy closure and crown density. Densité du couvert
Capital and repair expenditures Capital expenditures include the cost of procuring, constructing and installing new durable plants, machinery or equipment, whether for replacement of worn or obsolete assets, as additions to existing assets or for lease or rent to others. Repair expenditures include costs to repair and maintain structures, machinery and equipment. Dépenses en immobilisations et réparations
Carbon A chemical element highly abundant in nature and easily capable of forming polymers. Its unique properties make carbon the chemical basis of all biological compounds—and therefore, the chemical basis of life. Carbon is incorporated into biological processes and biomass mainly through plant photosynthesis. (See also carbon dioxide.) Carbone
Carbon budget Comparative evaluation of the amount of carbon stored in natural forests (sinks) and the amount emitted by them (sources), which is undertaken to determine whether the forests are sequestering more carbon than they are emitting to the atmosphere. Carbon budgets can be drawn up on various scales, including global. Bilan de carbone
Carbon dioxide (CO2) A colourless, odourless, non-combustible gas. Humans and all other living organisms give off carbon dioxide in respiration and decomposition. Trees and other plants absorb it and use it during photosynthesis. CO2 also emitted as a by-product of burning fossil fuels. Dioxyde de carbone (CO2)
Carbon footprint The total direct greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions produced by a facility to manufacture a range of products or an individual product. Empreinte carbone
Carbon neutrality When the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere equals the amount sequestered or offset. Neutralité carbonique
Carbon sequestration The uptake and storage of carbon. Trees and plants, for example, absorb carbon dioxide, release the oxygen and store the carbon. Fossil fuels were at one time biomass and continue to store the carbon until burned. Piégeage de carbone
Carbon sink A carbon reservoir that absorbs and stores carbon from another part of the carbon cycle. A sink stores more carbon than it emits to the atmosphere. This store of carbon can also be termed a reservoir or pool. Although a growing forest can be considered a carbon sink, when the forest stops growing and its trees die and start decomposing, it becomes a carbon source, because it emits more carbon than it stores. Puits de carbone
Carpophore Structure bearing the spores of a fungus, often composed of a cap and a stem. Carpophore
Carrier Any material, e.g. sawdust, that is thoroughly mixed with seed, fertilizer, herbicide, etc., to protect it in transit. Support
Casebearer Any of numerous insects that hide under a case, a shelter made by cutting and tying pieces of leaf together with silk; they feed and move around within this shelter. Casebearers are members of the order Lepidoptera . Porte-case
Catch crop A short-term, generally agricultural crop introduced into and at the start of a longer-rotation forest crop, mainly to provide early financial returns. Culture dérobée
Caterpillar Larval form of the immature stage of Lepidopterans. Transforms into a butterfly or moth. Chenille
Catkin A drooping cluster of flowers or fruits on a flexible axis (resembling the tassels on wheat). Chaton
Cell (Entomology) A space in an insect wing partly or completely surrounded by veins. (Cytology) The structural and functional unit of most living organisms. Cellule
Cell The most basic unit of a living organism capable of independent growth and reproduction. Cellule
Cellulose A polymer of glucose molecules, used by plants as a structural supporting material. Paper is made up of cellulose. Cellulose
Cellulose A carbohydrate (sugar-based biopolymer compound) that is the main structural component of green plants. (See also carbon.) Cellulose
Cephalothorax Anterior part of the body consisting of the fused head and thoracic segments. Céphalothorax
Cercus One of a pair of appendages located at the posterior end of the abdomen. Cerque
Certification (forest) Forest certification is a market-based instrument aimed at promoting sustainable forest management that takes into account environmental, economic and social issues. It involves the independent assessment of forest management according to internationally (or nationally) accepted standards, and the tracking and monitoring of the supply of forest products to the market place. If the forest management is in compliance with a set of specified standards, and the timber from this forest has been tracked and accounted for through all stages of the production process, then it can be given a label which is recognized in the market place. Certification forestière
Chain of custody The process of monitoring the production and distribution of goods from the forest to the end-product, i.e., tracing the origin of the product. Continuité de possession
Chaining syn. chain clearing, cabling in British Columbia. A method of reducing or clearing undesirable scrub by dragging through it a heavy chain (generally further weighted by objects such as concrete cylinders or large steel balls). Dragage
Check A crack in the surface of a piece of wood resulting from uneven drying. Gerce
Chelicera The anterior, usually fanglike, pair of appendages in arachnids that are used to chew prey. Chélicère
Chevron cuts A modification of strip cutting where the strip is angled part way along its length. Coupe par chevrons
Chewing Refers to the modified mouth parts of some insects that comprise a pair of mandibles enabling them to chew and tear up food. Broyeur
Chitin Compound secreted by the epidermis in arthropods and making up the bulk of their cuticle (outer layer of the body). Chitine
Chord An outer or edge component member of a truss. Membrure
Chromated copper arsenic A wood preservative that in most instances has been replaced by ammoniacal copper quaternary. Arséniate de cuivre et de chrome
Chromosome A single DNA molecule encoding a portion or all of a living organism’s genetic information; threadlike and located in the cell’s nucleus in higher organisms, circular in bacteria. Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes. Chromosome
Chrysalis The pupa of butterfly. Intermediate stage between the larval stage and the adult in lepidopterans. Chrysalide
Class Taxonomic level between Phyllum and Order. Eg, class Insecta Classe
Claviform Club-shaped. Claviforme
Clear wood Knot-free wood formed subsequent to pruning. Bois sans défaut
Clearcut n: An area of forest land from which all merchantable trees have recently been harvested. syn. clearcutting v: To harvest all merchantable trees from an area of forest land. Coupe à blanc
Clearcutting A silvicultural method in which most merchantable trees in a stand are harvested simultaneously, producing a fully exposed microclimate for the development of a new age class. Coupe à blanc
Clearcutting method A method of regenerating an even-aged forest stand in which new seedlings become established in fully exposed microenvironments after removal of most or all of the existing trees. Regeneration can originate naturally or artificially. Mode de régénération par coupe à blanc
Clearing 1. A considerable open space in a forest, which can be natural or artificial. 2. Removal of standing, usually scrubby, vegetation to prepare a site for reforestation. Clairière
Cleistothecium Spherical ascomatum (with no opening) found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (asci and ascospores). Cléistothèce
Climate change An alteration in measured quantities (for example, precipitation, temperature, radiation, wind and cloudiness) within the climate system that departs significantly from previous average conditions and is seen to endure, bringing about corresponding changes in ecosystems and socio-economic activity. Changement climatique
Climate change adaptation An adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli. Adaptation au changement climatique
Climate change mitigation Human intervention to reduce the effects of climate change. Atténuation du changement climatique
Clonal test Evaluation of genotypes by comparing clones in a plantation. Test clonal
Clone All plants reproduced asexually from a common ancestor and having identical genotypes. Named clones are given non-Latin names preceded by the abbreviation "cl". Clone
Cloning In biotechnology, obtaining a group of genetically identical cells from a single cell; making identical copies of a gene. Clonage
Clump The aggregate of stems issuing from the same root, rhizome system, or stool. An isolated, generally dense, group of trees. Bouquet
Cluster Group of flowers or fruits borne on a common axis. Grappe
Co-generation The simultaneous production of electricity and heat from steam. Cogénération
Coarse woody debris The standing and downed dead wood in a forest. Débris ligneux grossier
Cocoon Case of silk in which the pupa is formed. Cocon
Column A vertical support member used mostly in construction. Colonne
Commercial forest Forest land that is able to grow commercial timber within an acceptable time frame and is designated for such a purpose. Forêt d'intérêt commercial
Compatible management The management of forest lands using strategies and practices that increase the productivity of both timber and non-timber resources. Aménagement compatible
Compensatory planting Creating plantations in one area in order to replace, in part or whole, a loss of growing stock elsewhere. Reboisement de compensation
Competition control A treatment designed to reduce the competitive effect of undesirable vegetation threatening the success of the regeneration of desirable tree species. cf. brushing, cleaning Lutte contre la concurrence végétale
Competitive exclusion In ecology, principle (also known as Gause’s principle) that states no two species can occupy exactly the same fundamental niche indefinitely in a habitat where they are competing for the same essential resource, and that one species will crowd out the other. Exclusion compétitive
Composite wood product A material produced by gluing together wood elements with a synthetic resin. Produit en bois composite
Composition The proportion of each tree species in a stand expressed as a percentage of the total number, basal area, or volume of all tree species in the stand. Composition
Compound fertilizer A mixture of chemical nutrients added to the soil, having a broad array of actions. Fertilisant multiaction
Compound leaf A leaf with two or more leaflets attached to a single leaf stem. Feuille composée
Cone Reproductive structure of conifers consisting of a central axis covered with scales that are tightly pressed together. At maturity, it contains the seeds. Cône
Cone collection Harvesting of cones after seed maturation but before their dispersal. Récolte de cônes
Cone rake A device for collecting cones from a standing tree; it is lowered from a helicopter, over the crown of a tree. Cones or cone-bearing branches are removed and retrieved by the device. Cueilleur de cônes
Cone-feeding Feeding exclusively on the seeds and cones of conifers. Conophage
Conidiophore Specialized hypha upon which one or more conidia are borne. Conidiophore
Conidium Thin-walled spore produced asexually by certain fungi. Conidie
Conifer Member of a group of trees commonly called softwoods or gymnosperms. The word gymnosperm, from the Greek gymnos (naked) and sperma (seed), means "naked-seeded." This refers to the fact that conifer seeds are not contained in fruit tissue. The seeds are instead borne on scales, which are grouped together to form cones. Most conifers have persistent foliage consisting of needles or scales. Conifère
Contained root A root that does not elongate beyond the confines of the original rooting volume within a container, even when outplanted with the container removed. Racine contenue
Container Portable receptacle (pot, bag, or linked spaces) to hold rooting medium for growing planting stock. Récipient
Containerboard Component materials used in the manufacture of shipping containers and other corrugated board products. Carton caisse
Continuous boreal forest Main subarea of the vast boreal zone, which is characterized by relatively dense stands containing primarily boreal coniferous species and shade-intolerant deciduous trees. Forêt boréale continue
Contour furrow Trench made along a contour (i.e., horizontal) line, for the purpose of checking run-off and soil loss, and conserving moisture, in a hillside plantation. Labour de niveau
Contour planting Setting out of young trees along a contour line. Plantation en bandes de niveau
Conversion A change from one silvicultural system to another, also called conversion cut, or from one stand of trees or ecosystem to another, termed species conversion, the silvicultural procedures involved constituting a conversion system. Conversion sylvicole
Coppice Natural regeneration originating from stump sprouts, stool shoots, or root suckers. Taillis
Coppice method A method of regenerating a forest stand in which the cut trees produce sprouts, suckers, or shoots. Régime du taillis
Coppice selection method A coppice method in which only selected shoots of merchantable size are cut at each felling, giving uneven-aged stands. Taillis fureté
Coppice-of-two-rotations method A coppice method in which some of the coppice shoots are reserved for the whole of the next rotation, the rest being cut. Taillis composé
Coppicing Cutting trees close to ground level with a view to their producing coppice shoots. Coupe de rajeunissement
Copse A small woodlot or forest regularly cut over for regrowth. Bosquet de taillis
Corridor planting Setting trees in parallel rows, generally at regular intervals between and in lines, on land either wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en lignes
Coxa The basal leg segment attached to the thorax and the trochanter bearing the femur. Hanche
Crepuscular Pertaining to organisms that are active during the dim light of dusk or dawn. Crépusculaire
Crop The harvestable vegetation growing on a forest area, more particularly the major woody growth forming the forest crop. Peuplement forestier
Crop tree Any tree selected to become or forming a component of the final crop. Arbre du peuplement final
Cross pollination The fertilization of an egg in one plant by a sperm cell found in a pollen grain of another plant. The resulting seed will have the hereditary characteristics from both parents. Pollinisation croisée
Crown The upper part of a tree. Cime
Crown class Trees in a forest with crowns of similar development and occupying a similar position in the canopy; the term applies to groups of trees. Classe de cime
Crown closure class Any interval into which the range of proportions of ground area covered by the vertically projected tree crown areas of a stand is divided for classification and use. Classe de fermeture du couvert
Crown cover The ground area covered by the crowns of trees or woody vegetation as delimited by the vertical projection of crown perimeters and commonly expressed as a percentage of total ground area. Couvert
Crown fire A fire that advances through the crown fuel layer, the upper part of the tree bearing live branches and foliage. Feu de cime
Crown land Public land that is managed by the federal or provincial/territorial government. Terre de la Couronne
Crown pruning 1. Natural: Removal or decadence of lateral live crown by wind, abrasion, reduced light, etc. 2. Cultural: Mechanical removal of branch ends to shape crowns for aesthetic appeal, e.g., for Christmas trees, bonsai, etc. Taille en cime
Crushing The compaction of slash and brush by machinery. In Manitoba, the chopping of slash and provision of microsites are considered important features of this treatment. Écrasage
Cryopreservation The preservation of living materials at very low temperatures, often within liquid nitrogen, to protect them against damage. Cryopréservation
Cull Trees or logs or portions thereof that are of merchantable size but are rendered unmerchantable by defects. In nursery practice, a seedling that does not match the grade or specifications. Rebut
Cultivar A variety of plant cultivated on account of its favourable characteristics for horticulture, forestry or agriculture. Cultivars
Cupping When the edges of a piece of lumber are raised compared to its middle. Bombement
Cuticle (Bionaty) Surface tissue layer of the cap of fungi. (Entomology) Layer of material covering the body of arthropods. This covering is made hard and rigid by the chitin secreted by the epidermis. Cuticule
Cutover An area of forest land from which some or all timber has recently been cut. Coupe totale
Cutting 1. [bouture (n.f.)] A short length cut from a young, living stem, branch, or root, for propagating a whole new plant, in soil or other media. 2. [abattage (n.m.)] The act of cutting down a standing tree. s Abattage
Cutting cycle The planned interval between partial harvests in an uneven-aged stand. Rotation
Cutting regime System of cutting treatments applied to a stand at a defined period. Régime d’exploitation
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