Glossary: G

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Term Definition French
Gall-forming Relates to an organism that induces the formation of galls and feeds on their tissues. Galligène
Gall-inhabiting Pertaining to an organism that lives in a gall made by a different insect. Gallicole
Gap dynamics The change in space and time in the pattern, frequency, size, and successional processes of forest canopy gaps caused by the fall or death of one or more canopy trees. Dynamique des trouées
Gasification Conversion of a carbon-rich feedstock (usually solid) to a gas using high temperatures and a limited amount of oxygen. Gazéification
Gene A functional portion of a chromosome in which inheritable characteristics are determined by the sequence of nucleotides along the DNA. Gène
Gene bank An ex situ conservation facility that stores plant germplasm of various species in the form of pollen, seeds, or tissue culture. Also refers to a database of publicly available DNA sequences. Banque de gènes
Gene expression The multi-step process in which the coded information in a gene is converted into functional products. Expression génétique
Gene flow The movement of alleles among interbreeding individuals belonging to different populations, by means of seed or pollen dispersal or the migration of individuals. Flux génique
Gene stacking Combining desired traits, for example, pest resistance and herbicide tolerance, in a genetically modified organism. Empilement de gènes
Genetic code A universal correspondence rule between a three-nucleotide DNA sequence and a specific amino acid that is used when genes are translated into proteins. Code génétique
Genetic diversity The genetic variation present in a population or species. Diversité génétique
Genetic engineering A method used to directly transfer DNA from one organism into another that results in a genetically engineered organism, one form of genetically modified organism. Génie génétique
Genetic map A representation of the relative locations of genes along a chromosome marked with probes and/or genetic markers. Carte génétique
Genetic marker A DNA fragment of known location on the genome that is used to mark specific genes or traits. Marqueur génétique
Genetically modified organism (GMO) An organism that has had its DNA sequence altered through genetic engineering, a natural process, or the action of mutagens. Organisme génétiquement modifié (OGM)
Genome The complete genetic material in a particular organism. In animals, this includes the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA; in plants, this includes the nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast's DNA. Génome
Genomics The study of an organism’s DNA sequence and the location of genes on its chromosomes (structural genomics) and of the function of an organism’s genes in relation to their products under particular environmental conditions (functional genomics). Génomique
Genotype An individual hereditary constitution derived from its parents and forming a unique combination of genes; sometimes referring to trees having similar genetic constitutions with regard to certain common, identifiable genetic characteristics. Génotype
Geographic Information System (GIS) An organized collection of computer hardware, software and geographic data designed for capturing, storing, updating, manipulating, analyzing and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. Système d'information géographique (SIG)
Geophilous Living in or on the ground. Géophile
Germination test A test made to determine the viability of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample. Essai de germination
Germinative capacity The percentage of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample that actually germinate, irrespective of time. In any batch of seeds, the percentage that is pure (of the species required) multiplied by the germinative capacity. Faculté germinative
Germinative energy The percentage of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample germinating within a given period e.g., 7 or 14 days, under optimum or stated conditions. Vigueur germinative
Germplasm The total set of genes of an individual representing a variety or species that may be used for conservation purposes. Matériel génétique
Gill Plate-shaped membrane located under the cap of a fungus; all of the gills together form the hymenium. Lamelle
Girdling Destruction of tissue (water conducting system) in a ring around a tree. Anneler
Girdling 1. Silviculture: Making more or less continuous incisions around a living stem, through at least both bark and cambium, generally with the object of killing the trees. Annélation
Glabrous Lacking hairs or down. Glabre
Global Positioning System (GPS) A system of satellites and receiving devices used to compute positions on the Earth. Système de positionnement global (GPS)
Global warming The rise in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect. Réchauffement climatique
Graded The assignment of products into different categories based on standard visual appearance characteristics or factors that limit strength . Classification
Graft n: A plant that has been grafted. v: To place a detached cutting or branch tip (scion) in close cambial contact with a rooted plant (understock) in such a manner that scion and rootstock unite. Greffe
Grain The direction in which the majority of cells in wood are oriented; wood has different properties "with" or "against" the grain. Grain
Granite bedrock Geological formation that dates back more than 450 million years and is characterized by vast expanses of granite of volcanic origin. The Canadian Shield is made up largely of granite bedrock. Since granite has little capacity to neutralize acid rain, the forest ecosystems in these regions are fairly vulnerable to the effects of acid deposition. Assise granitique
Granivorous Feeding on seeds. Granivore
Grapple A handling tool suspended from the end of the boom, consisting of a downward-turned clamp that is opened to pick up the stems or logs and then closed to lift and deposit them further away. Grappin
Green chemistry Chemical processes, products, and technologies that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of substances hazardous to human health and the environment and that incorporate energy efficient methods, the use of renewable feedstocks, and other such considerations in their design. Chimie verte
Green manuring Increasing the fertility of soil by raising suitable herbaceous crops on it, particularly Fabaceae, but also Cruciferae and Gramineae, and digging or ploughing them while succulent, with or without supplementary fertilizers. Engrais vert
Green tree cut Harvesting that retains live trees of a specific species and size on the area to be cut to achieve a site-specific objective. Coupe avec réserves
Greenhouse effect The warming of the Earth's atmosphere caused by increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other gases in the air, which trap the sun's heat within the atmosphere. Effet de serre
Greenhouse gas (GHG) A gas—such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and ozone—that is transparent to incoming solar radiation but less so to the infrared radiation reflected back by the Earth’s surface, hence trapping part of the solar energy and warming the planet’s surface enough to sustain life. The build-up of greenhouse gases from industrial activities enhances the natural “greenhouse effect” and is partly responsible for global warming. Gaz à effet de serre (GES)
Greenhouse gas sinks Any process, activity or mechanism that removes greenhouse gases or their precursors from the atmosphere. The principal natural mechanism is photosynthesis. Puits de gaz à effet de serre
Greenhouse gas source Any process or activity (for example, forest fires or conversion of forest land to agricultural or urban uses) that releases greenhouse gases or precursors of those gases into the atmosphere. As trees and forest products decompose or burn, they release carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. Source de gaz à effet de serre
Gross domestic product (GDP) The total value of all goods and services produced within Canada during a given year. Produit intérieur brut (PIB)
Group method A shelterwood system in which the canopy is opened, by group cutting, so as to create fairly evenly distributed gaps which are enlarged by subsequent cuttings. Système des coupes progressives par trouées
Group planting Setting out young trees in groups. Plantation par bouquets
Group-selection method A method of regenerating and maintaining uneven-aged stands in which trees are removed in small groups. Jardinage par bouquets
Growing stock All the trees growing in a forest or in a specified part of it, generally expressed in terms of number or volume. Matériel sur pied
Growth promoter Any agent present or provided as a supplement to the plant or its environment to activate growth. Déclencheur de croissance
Guild management A method of management by which species are assembled into groups based on similarities in their habitat requirements. One species is selected to indicate the group; conserving the habitat of that particular species ensures the conservation of other members of the guild. Gestion par association
Gymnosperm See conifer. Gymnosperme
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