Glossary: P

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Term Definition French
Packaging paper Thicker and stronger paper sheets used to wrap or contain materials and goods for storage and transport. Emballage
Paint gun A low-pressure hand tool for squirting a distinctive mark of paint on trees and timber. Pistolet marqueur
Panels Sheets of wood or fibres glued together under heat and pressure. Panneaux
Paper Sheets of material produced from wood pulp. Has many uses, including for writing or printing on and packaging. Papiers
Parasite Organism that lives on or in and feeds on a living plant or animal (host). The parasite gradually weakens the host and may or may not kill it. Parasite
Parasitoid An organism that lives at the expense of another (its host); impedes its growth and eventually kills it. Insect parasitoids, which are often very tiny, attack a single organism (plant or animal); from which they derive everything they need for their own growth and reproduction. One way a parasitoid does this is by laying its eggs in the body of the host insect. Parasitoids are being used more and more for biological control of insect pests, thus reducing the need for chemical insecticides. Predators, unlike parasitoids, prey on more than one organism and kill and consume their tissues. Parasitoïde
Parthenogenesis Form of reproduction in which an organism develops from an unfertilized egg. Parthénogenèse
Partial cutting Removal of only part of a stand for purposes other than regenerating a new age class. Coupe partielle
Partial harvest Any cutting in which only part of the stand is harvested. Coupe partielle
Particle (wood) A small element produced mechanically from wood. Particles can be further subdivided based on their geometry into categories or types such as chips, flakes, shavings, sawdust and slivers. Particle dimensions are typically 25 mm or less along the grain direction and of varying widths and thicknesses. Particules de bois
Particle gun transformation See biolistics. Transformation par canon à particules
Particleboard A panel made from wood particles, which are often the residue from other wood processing operations, combined under heat and pressure with a water-resistant binder. It differs from fibreboard in that the wood particles are larger than fibres. Panneau de particules
Patch burning Burning felling debris, grass, etc. in patches for the purpose of preparing sites for group planting or sowing. Brûlage par placettes
Patch cutting A silvicultural system that creates openings less than one hectare in size and is designed to manage each opening as a distinct even-aged opening. Coupe par trouées
Patch logging A modification of the clearcutting system developed in the Pacific Coast region of North America, whereby patches of about 5 to 200 ha are logged as single units, separated for as long as practicable. Exploitation par blocs
Patch scarifier A mechanized implement used to expose patches of mineral soil in a systematic pattern. Scarificateur de placeaux
Pathogen Living or dead agent that alters the normal functions of a whole plant or part of a plant. Agent pathogène
Pathogen A microscopic organism or virus directly capable of causing disease. see thinning: precommercial. Pathogène
Pathogenic A parasitic organism directly capable of causing disease. Pathogène
Pathology Study of diseases and the effects they have on plants. Pathologie
Pathology The study of disease. Pathologie
Pedology Scientific discipline that is concerned with all aspects of soils. Pédologie
Pelleting Incorporating seed in a matrix of fungicide, insecticide, repellent, coloring material or inert carrier, or any combination of these, so as to form a small ball termed a seed pellet. Enrobage
Periodic block The part(s) of forest allocated for regeneration (the regeneration block) or other treatment during a specified period. (3) Affectation de régénération
Perithecium Flask-shaped ascomatum found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (ascus and ascospores). Périthèce
Permafrost A perennially frozen soil horizon. Pergélisol
Permafrost Permanently frozen ground comprised of an active layer of soil overlying a layer of ice that varies in thickness. Permafrost is completely impervious to water because it does not thaw, although the active layer does thaw seasonally. Pergélisol
Persistent foliage Characteristic of evergreen trees, that is, trees that do not shed their leaves in the fall. Feuillage persistant
Pest Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs. Ravageur
Pest Any organism, whether insect, pathogen, mammal, or competing vegetation, capable of causing damage to a forest crop. Nuisible
Pest resistance A heritable trait that enables an organism (e.g., a tree) to be less damaged by pests compared to its non-resistant relatives. Résistance aux ravageurs
Pesticide Any preparation used to control populations of injurious organisms, plant or animal. Pesticide
Petri dish In bacteriology, a shallow, flat-bottomed, transparent vessel that consists of two round rimmed plates one overlapping the other as a cover, for micro-organisms and tissue cells culture. Boîte de Pétri
Petrochemical A chemical made from petroleum, natural gas, or other fossilized hydrocarbons. (See also fossil fuel.) Produit pétrochimique
Phenolic compound A highly complex organic compound that exists in every plant in various mixes, ratios and concentrations. Phenols include, for example, many plant pigments. Composés phénoliques
Phenology The study of timing of periodic phenomena, such as flowering, growth initiation, growth cessation, etc., especially as related to seasonal changes in temperature, photoperiod, etc. Phénologie
Phenotype An organism as observed, i.e., as judged by its visually perceptible characters resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment. Identical phenotypes do not necessarily breed alike. Phénotype
Pheromones A chemical substance released by animals, including insects, that influences the behaviour or development of other individuals of the same species, for example, sexual attractants. Phéromones
Phloem The part of the tree that is produced through the growth of cambium cells in an outward direction. It may also be called secondary phloem. The sap produced by the leaves travels through the phloem tissue downwards in the tree. Compared with the xylem (wood) the phloem occupies a very small part of the tree. Phloème
Photosynthesis Formation of carbohydrates in the chlorophyll-containing tissues of plants exposed to light. Photosynthèse
Phyllophagous Feeding on the leaves of plants. Phyllophage
Phyllum Taxonomic level between Kingdom and Class. Eg, phyllum Arthropoda composed of organisms with a segmented body. The body wall is more or less hardened and forms an exoskeleton. Embranchement
Phytophagous Refers to organisms that feed on plants. Phytophage
Piedmont The area of foothills at the edge of a range of mountains, which represents the transition between mountain and plain. The Foothills of Alberta are an example of a piedmont. Piedmont (ou piémont)
Piercing-sucking Relates to an organism that has specialized mouthparts for sucking the fluids from plants, thereby causing deformities or killing the affected plant sections. Piqueur-suceur
Piling Slash disposal whereby coarse woody debris are gathered into windrows or isolated piles. Mise en andain
Pioneer species A species adapted to early stages of natural forest succession or growth on newly available sites. Essences transitoires
Pioneer species Species that are the first to colonize a new site or a new ecosystem. They are generally shade intolerant and need a lot of sunlight in order to grow. Poplars and birches are pioneer species. Espèce pionnière
Pit One of many cavities or depressions on the fruiting body of morels. Alvéole
Pit planting Setting out young trees in small depressions, natural or excavated, with a view to collecting and conserving moisture. Plantation sur trous
Planer shavings Thin pieces of wood generated when dried lumber is planed smooth prior to shipping. Particule de rabotage
Planetary wave A wave in the atmospheric circulation, in one of the principal zones of the westerly winds, characterized by a great length and a significant amplitude. Onde planétaire
Planing An operation consisting of giving a uniform width and thickness to sawn wood while removing as much as possible any surface irregularities caused by previous operations. Rabotage
Plant tray A flat, box-type container in which plants are raised. Caissette
Plant with novel traits (PNT) In accordance with the Seeds Regulations, Part V related to the Seeds Act administered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, a plant variety possessing a characteristic that is intentionally selected or created through a specific genetic change and is either not previously associated with a distinct and stable population of the plant species in Canada or expressed outside the normal range of a similar existing characteristic in the plant species. Végétal à caractères nouveaux (VCN)
Plantation forest Forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation which are either of introduced species (all planted stands) or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing. Plantation forestière
Plantation forestry Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand. Foresterie de plantation
Planting Establishing a forest by setting out seedlings, transplants, or cuttings in an area. Plantation
Planting auger A motorized auger used to create planting holes. Tarière
Planting bar A long-handled, tapered spade used to make narrow, deep holes for young plants of tap-rooted tree species. Bêche à planter
Planting gun Special devices of varying complexity which make holes by compression and either set or shoot a containerized seedling into the soil. Plantoir à pistolet
Planting machine Specially designed machine that cuts a narrow trench through the soil in which seedling roots are inserted and then held in place by closing of the trench. Planteuse
Planting spot The exact spot where a young tree has been set out. Emplacement des semis
Planting stock Seedlings, transplants, cuttings, and occasionally wildlings, for use in planting. Matériel de reproduction
Plasmid A small circle of bacterial DNA that is used as a vector to transfer genes from one organism to another. Plasmids have the ability to replicate independently within a host. Plasmide
Platform-frame The typical residential construction method in North America, using wood for both vertical and horizontal support; stacks each floor on the completed floor beneath it for support. Charpente à plate-forme
Ploughing Operation designed to loosen compacted soils and/or to pull the roots of unwanted plants out of the ground by means of single- or double-moldboard ploughs or special shaping devices pulled by a tractor, bulldozer, or similar equipment. Labourage
Plug transplant A small container seedling which is to be planted and raised as a bare-root seedling. Plant fiche
Plurinucleate Containing several nuclei. Plurinucléé
Plus stand A stand containing a preponderance of good phenotypes, but not necessarily plus trees. Peuplement plus
Plus tree A phenotype judged (but not proved by testing) to be unusually superior in some quality or qualities. Arbre plus
Plywood A structural panel made of multiple layers of wood veneers glued together with the grain of each layer perpendicular to that of the next. Used as a structural, load-bearing component of buildings. Contreplaqué
Pocket of infection Area in a stand or plantation where a disease originated. Foyers d'infection
Pole A tree between a sapling and small sawtimber size. Size varies by region, e.g., for boreal and eastern forests 12-20 cm dbh. Perche
Pollard system The systematic harvest cutting of pollard shoots, with due provision for replacing exhausted or defective pollards. Taillis sur têtards
Pollarding Cutting back the crown of a tree (removal of dead, diseased or unwanted branches). Émondage
Pollination Transfer of pollen from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a flower of the same species, resulting in fertilization. Pollinisation
Pollinivorous Feeding on pollen. Pollinivore
Polyculture The simultaneous cultivation of a number of crops as opposed to stands composed of a single species. Polyculture
Polymer Any natural or synthetic compound of high molecular weight composed of numerous repeated simple subunits (monomers) sharing pairs of electrons. Examples include plastics and high-strength fibres. (See also biopolymer.) Polymère
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) A laboratory procedure that provides the conditions for rapid replication of a specific DNA segment, resulting in a very high number of copies of that segment. PCR makes a DNA segment easier to analyze for genetic research, forensics, the diagnosis of diseases, or other applications. Réaction en chaîne de la polymérase (PCR)
Polyphagous Feeding on several plant or animal species. Organism that develops on more than one host, eg, the gypsy moth, a polyphagous caterpillar feeds on both deciduous and coniferous trees. Polyphage
Population A group that includes all possible members of a species in a territory at a given time. Population
Post A vertical support member of a minimum 5½ inches in its cross-section dimension. Poteau
Post-and-beam A traditional method of creating structures using precisely fitted and joined timbers, usually secured by wooden pegs. Poteau et poutre
Pot planting Setting out young trees in pot-shaped receptacles having a closed or only perforated end and made of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en pot
Pre-commercial thinning Cutting in an immature crop or stand to improve crop spacing and to accelerate the diameter increment of favoured trees, and/or improve the average form of the trees that remain. Does not yield trees of commercial value. Éclaircie précommerciale
Precommercial thinning Silvicultural treatment that consists in freeing trees that have good growth potential from competition by cutting the lower quality stems that are competing with them. Éclaircie précommerciale
Predator Organism that hunts, captures and kills several types of prey (insects and acarians) over the course of its development. Prédateur
Predominant A tree whose crown has grown above the general level of the upper canopy. Prédominant
Pregermination The germination of seed, generally to the stage when the radicle is just emerging, before sowing in the field or nursery. Germination physiologique
Preparatory cutting Removing trees near the end of a rotation so as to permanently open the canopy and enlarge the crowns of seed bearers, with a view to improving conditions for seed production and natural regeneration, as typically in shelterwood systems. Coupe préparatoire
Prepupa Larval stage before pupation during which the insect stops eating and prepares for the pupal stage by making a cocoon, a shelter or attaching itself to an object with silk threads. Prépupe
Prescribed burning The knowledgeable application of fire to a specific land area to accomplish predetermined forest management or other land use objectives. Brûlage dirigé
Principal species The species to which the silviculture of a mixed forest is primarily directed, either for its (or their) economic or protective value. Essences principales
Probe A short DNA fragment, radioactively or otherwise labeled, used to locate a specific complementary sequence of DNA or RNA. Sonde
Proboscis Tube-shaped mouthpart used by insects to suck nectar from flowers or suck other liquid food. Proboscis
Productivity The rate of production of wood of given specifications, by volume or weight, for a given area. cf. site capability Productivité
Progeny The offspring of a particular tree or a combination of one female and one male tree. Descendance
Progeny test A test in which the genetic constitution of an individual is evaluated from the performance of its progeny produced by some specific mating system. Test de descendance
Protected area A geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives. Zone / aire protégée
Protection forest All forest land managed primarily to exert beneficial influence on soil, water, landscape, or for any other purpose when production of merchantable timber, if any, is incidental. Forêt de protection
Protein A functional organic macromolecule assembled from amino acids linked with peptide bonds; a product of gene expression. Protéine
Protocol A legally binding sub-agreement of a framework convention or treaty. Protocole
Protozoa Single-celled animal-like microorganisms whose cells have a nucleus. Protozoa play an important role in the ecology of aquatic and soil environments, where they are omnipresent. Protozoaire
Provenance 1. The geographical area and environment to which the parent trees, etc., are native and within which their genetic constitution has been developed through natural selection. 2. The geographical source, i.e., place of origin. Provenance
Provenance test An experiment, usually replicated, comparing trees grown from seed or cuttings collected from many parts of a species, natural range. Test de provenance
Pruning Removal of branches from a tree, particularly beneath the crown. Élagage
Pruning 1. The removal of live branches from standing trees, termed green pruning; or of dead branches, dry pruning. 2. Removal of live or dead branches from ground level to as high as a person's reach (2.0-2.5 m) in a young stand. Élagage
Pruning saw A saw specially designed to prune standing trees. Scie à élaguer
Pulp Wood chips that have been ground mechanically into fibres and are used for the production of inexpensive paper, such as newsprint, or that have been chemically treated to remove the lignin and are used to manufacture higher quality papers. Pâte
Pulp-moulded products Papermaking pulp moulded into packaging materials that snugly fit or separate fragile articles. Used for products such as egg cartons, domestic and utility trays, and bottle protectors. Produits moulés en pâte et papier
Pupal Pertaining to the stage between the larval stage and the adult in insects. Pupal
Pupation Process whereby a larva tranforms into a pupa and later emerges as a mature insect. Nymphose
Pycnidium Spherical or flask-shaped structure (resembles a perithecium, but is asexual) within which conidia are formed. Pycnide
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