Glossary: R

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Term Definition French
Race A population that exists within a species and exhibits genetic characteristics distinct from those of the other populations. It is usually an interbreeding unit. Race
Radicicolous Living on or in roots. A parasite of roots. Radicicole
Rafter A sloped structural member of either dimension lumber on edge or timber, used as part of a roof support. Chevron
Rainforest Forest that occurs in an area of high rainfall. Rainforests are usually found near the sea or in mountainous regions that receive a great deal of rain. Tropical forests are generally rainforests. Forêt pluviale
Raking Site preparation technique using a bulldozer or similar equipment with a blade having teeth instead of a plain edge, for pushing large, coarse woody debris and rocks off a site and leaving smaller stones, soil, and small finer slash. Râtelage
Ramicorns Abnormally large branches that project at sharp acute angles from the bole and are persistent (often associated with previous weevil attack). Ramicorne
Recombinant DNA DNA constructed by joining DNA segments from two or more organisms. (See genetic engineering.) ADN recombinant
Reforestation syn. reafforestation Successful renewal of a forest crop by planting or direct seeding. Création de forêt
Regeneration Renewal of a forest crop by natural, artificial, or vegetative (regrowth) means. Also the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high. Régénération
Regeneration area The area selected, normally in a working plan or working scheme, for regeneration generally with a specified period of time in view. Quartier de régénération
Regeneration class The area, and the young trees in the area, being managed during the regeneration interval in the shelterwood silvicultural system. In this interval, old and young trees occupy the same area, the young being protected by the old. Classe de régénération
Regeneration cut Any removal of trees intended to assist regeneration already present or to make regeneration possible. Coupe de régénération
Regeneration initiation The year in which the new crop is deemed to be started at an acceptable stocking level, whether by planting, natural or artificial seeding, or by vegetative means. Début de la régénération
Regeneration interval The period between the seed cutting and the final cutting on a particular area under one of the shelterwood systems. Durée de régénération
Regeneration period The time between the initial regeneration cut and the successful reestablishment of a stand by natural or artificial means. Période de régénération
Regeneration survey An inventory of the quantity and quality of regeneration over a given area. Relevé de la régénération
Regrowth A term used in reference to coppice, as well as recovery of vegetation from treatment designed to impede or control its growth. Recrû
Research and development (R&D) Set of activities directed toward improving and innovating products and processes from a technological point of view and not from a commercial point of view. Encompasses basic research, applied research and development. Recherche et développement (R-D)
Reserve cutting See seed-tree method. Coupe à blanc avec réserves
Resilience The capacity of a community or ecosystem to maintain or regain normal function and development following disturbance. Résilience
Resin blister Swelling containing resin, a sticky gum-like substance. Vésicule de résine
Resinous See conifer. Résineux
Retention harvesting A silvicultural system designed to retain individual trees or groups of trees to maintain structural diversity over the area of the cutblock. Coupe à rétention variable
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Molecule found in the cells of living organisms, where it plays an important role in protein synthesis; in some viruses it is the carrier of genetic information. Acide ribonucléique (ARN)
Ridge planting Setting out young trees on a long, narrow crest of excavated soil, generally on a slice thrown up by a plough. Plantation sur bourrelet
Ring Ring structure around the base of some fungi. Anneau
Ring-barking Removing a narrow strip of bark (only), all around a living stem, in order to stimulate flowering or to girdle it; or a felled stem or a log, for under-bark diameter measurement. Annélation partielle
Riparian forest At a large scale, it is the band of forest that has a significant influence on a stream ecosystem or is significantly affected by the stream. At a smaller scale, it is the forest at the immediate water’s edge, where some specialized plants and animals form a distinct community. Forêt riveraine
Riparian forest buffer A strip of forested land of variable width adjacent to a flowing body of fresh water, which it influences and is affected by. Prone to flooding, a riparian forest buffer can be integrated into an agroforestry system and help counter stream bank erosion, protect water quality, and regularize water flow. Bande riveraine
Riparian zone A strip of land of variable width adjacent to and influenced by a body of fresh water. Zone riveraine
Ripper A toothed blade or set of heavy tines mounted at the front or rear of a vehicle for breaking up soft rock and hard ground, and tearing out stumps and boulders. Also a vehicle so equipped. Défonceuse
Ripper plough A V-shaped plough mounted with a ripper blade used for scarification on frozen soil. Charrue défonceuse
Ripping The mechanical penetration and shearing of range soils to depths of 3-7 cm for the purpose of breaking hardpan layers to facilitate penetration of plant roots, water, organic matter, and nutrients. Ripage
Risk assessment A quantitative and qualitative approach to determining the hazardous capacity of a new product. This involves the identification and characterization of hazards, an assessment of exposure to the product, and a final risk characterization of the product. Évaluation des risques
Root Part of the tree that anchors it and absorbs nutrients from the soil. Racine
Root collar Transition point between the roots and the trunk. Collet
Root pruning The act of reducing one or more roots considered to be superfluous, usually at some stage before outplanting, in order to improve the shape and size of a root system. Élagage des racines
Root puddling The act or treatment of immersing, sometimes several times in close succession, the root systems of bare-root planting stock in a clay slurry with the aim of improving outplant performance. Pralinage des racines
Root rake An implement, either mounted on the front of a dozer, skidder or forwarder, or trailed, having tines for collecting stumps and slash. Râteau
Root rot Decomposition of the woody tissue in roots causing the death of the cambium or bark of the roots, thus girdling the trees at the root collar and causing their death. Pourridié
Root stripping 1. The accidental removal of roots during lifting, handling, and planting, especially when caused by improper practices. 2. The removal of bark from roots. Dépouillement des racines
Root sucker See sucker Drageon racinaire
Root trimming The trimming of roots by a cutting tool after lifting and prior to outplanting. Taille des racines
Root wad The mass of roots, soil and rocks that remains intact when a tree, shrub, or stump is uprooted. Motte racinaire
Root-feeding Feeding on the roots of plants. Radicivore
Root-to-shoot ratio The total mass or volume of the plant root system divided by the total mass or volume of the shoot system, usually on an oven-dry basis. Rapport système racinaire/système foliacé
Rostrum Rigid or segmented projection on the anterior part of some insect head bearing the mouth parts. Rostre
Rotary tiller A site preparation machine using hammers, teeth, tines, or flails mounted on a horizontal drum or horizontal or vertical shaft revolving at high speed. Laboureur à lames rotatives
Rotation The planned number of years between the formation or regeneration of a crop or stand and its final cutting at a specified stage or maturity. Révolution
Rotation burning Prescribed burning applied at regular intervals on a specific site as a means of pest control. Brûlage cyclique
Round leaf Leaf of variable shape whose length is nearly the same as its width. Feuille ronde
Roundwood Sections of tree stems, with or without bark. May include logs, bolts, posts and pilings. Bois ronds
Rust Disease caused by a fungus that is parasitic on higher plants and may go through five different developmental stages, usually involving hosts. Following infection, orange pustules appear, possibly followed by premature shedding of foliage, witches' brooms or cankers. Rouille
Rutting The resulting depressions in the soil due to the repeated passage of a logging machine’s wheels at the same place. Orniérage
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