Glossary: S

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Term Definition French
Salvage cutting The exploitation of trees that are dead, dying, or deteriorating (e.g., because overmature or materially damaged by fire, wind, insects, fungi, or other injurious agencies) before their timber becomes economically worthless. Coupe de récupération
Salvage harvesting The removal—after the main logging—of the rest of the timber, with a view to supplying a different class of product. Coupe de récupération
Samara A winged, one-seeded fruit. Samare
Sanitation cutting The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees, essentially to prevent the spread of pests or pathogens and so promote forest hygiene. Coupe d’assainissement
Sanitation measures The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees or their parts, or of vegetation that serves as an alternative host for crop-tree pathogens, to prevent or control the spread of pests or pathogens. Mesures sanitaires
Sap-feeding Feeding on plant sap. Succivore
Sapling A general term for a young tree no longer a seedling but not yet a pole, about 1-2 m high and 2-4 cm in dbh, typically growing vigorously and without dead bark or more than an occasional dead branch. Gaule
Saprophagous Refers to organisms that feed on decaying or decayed plant or animal matter. Saprophage
Saproxylophagous Refers to an organism that develops in partially decomposed woody debris. Saproxylophage
Saproxylophilous Living on rotting wood. Saproxylophile
Sawfly Insect in the order Hymenoptera; the female has a sawlike structure that it uses for egg-laying. Mouche à scie
Sawtimber Trees that will yield logs suitable in size and quality for the production of lumber. Bois de sciage
Scale (Botany) One of the small overlapping plate-like parts that make up the modified leaf of cedars. (Entomology) Tiny, overlapping plates covering the wings of butterflies. Écaille
Scaling An activity consisting of measuring, by calculation or any other scientific means, the real or apparent volume. Mesurage
Scalping Paring off low and surface vegetation, with most of its roots, to expose a weed-free soil surface, generally preparatory to sowing or planting thereon. If done by chemicals, termed chemical screefing. Dégazonnement
Scatophagous Feeding on dung or excrement. Scatophage
Scatophilous Living in association with dung or excrement. Scatophile
Science (forest) The study of the material universe or physical reality in order to understand it. This is done by making observations and collecting data about natural events and conditions, then organizing and explaining them with hypotheses, theories, models, laws and principles. Science forestière
Science and technology (S&T) Systematic activities that are closely concerned with the generation, advancement, dissemination and application of scientific and technical knowledge in all fields of science and technology, including such activities as research and development (R&D), scientific and technical education and training, and scientific and technological services. Sciences et technologie (S et T)
Scion An aerial plant part, often a branchlet, that is grafted onto another root-bearing plant (stock, rootstock). Greffon
Sclerotin Cuticular protein that has been hardened and darkened. Sclérotine
Sclerotized Part of integument hardened through the excretion of calcium (crustaceans) or the deposition of sclerotin. Sclérifié
Scribe A tool for marking trees or round timber by scoring the outer surface. Rainette
Second growth The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest. Seconde venue, de
Second growth forest The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest. Forêt de seconde venue
Secondary species A species of inferior quality and/or size, and of lesser silvicultural value, associated with the principal species. cf. accessory species Essences secondaires
Secondary succession Process whereby one stand or plant community supplants another; it is triggered by a major disturbance in a forest ecosystem. Successions secondaires
Sedge Herbaceous plants that have narrow leaves with sharp edges, flowers that are grouped into spikes and fruit (achenes) enclosed in small sacs. Sedges grow in tufts at the water’s edge and in wetlands. Carex
Seed Fertilized ovule that contains an embryo and has the capacity to produce a new individual. Graine
Seed bank A place in which seeds of rare plant or obsolete varieties are stored, usually vacuum-packed and under cold conditions, to prolong their viability. Banque de semences
Seed bearer 1. Any tree producing seed. 2. Any tree retained to provide seed for natural regeneration, e.g., during seed cuttings. Porte-graines
Seed collection area A forest stand that exhibits good characteristics of growth, form, and vigor and that is not managed for cone production, but from which seed is collected, usually at the time of harvest. Zone de récolte de semences
Seed cutting Removing trees in a mature stand so as to effect permanent opening of its canopy (if there was no preparatory cutting to do this) and so provide conditions for securing regeneration from the seed of trees retained for that purpose. Coupe d’ensemencement
Seed orchard A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, etc. Verger à graines
Seed source The locality where a seed lot was collected usually defined on an eco-geographic basis by distance, elevation, precipitation, latitude, etc. Origine des graines
Seed spot syn. seedspot A prepared, limited space, e.g., a small, cultivated patch, within which (tree) seeds are sown. Placeau
Seed trap A device for catching the seeds falling on a small area of ground, from trees or shrubs. Used for determining the amount of seedfall and the time, period, rate, and distance of dissemination. Piège à semences
Seed tree A tree selected, and often reserved, for seed collection or provision of seed for natural regeneration. Semencier
Seed year The year in which a tree species produces, either as an individual or a crop, an adequate amount of seed; applies to any species but particularly to those with irregular or infrequent seed production. Année semencière
Seed-feeding Feeding on seeds. Cléthrophage
Seed-tree method A method of regenerating a forest stand in which all trees are removed from the area except for a small number of seed-bearing trees that are left singly or in small groups. Mode de régénération par coupe avec réserve de semenciers
Seedbed In natural regeneration, the soil or forest floor on which seed falls. In nursery practice, and also in the field, a prepared area over which seed is sown. Lit de germination
Seeding aerial [ensemencement aérien]: Broadcast seeding of seeds or seed pellets from aircraft. broadcast [ensemencement à la volée]: The sowing of seeds more or less evenly over a whole area. Ensemencement
Seedling Young plant that has grown from a seed. Semis
Selection Choosing individuals with desired qualities to serve as parents for the next generation. Sélection
Selection cutting Annual or periodic cutting of trees chosen individually or by groups, in an uneven-aged stand, in order to recover the yield and develop a balanced uneven-aged stand structure, while providing the cultural measures required for tree growth. Coupe de jardinage
Selection differential The average phenotypic value of the selected individuals, expressed as a deviation from the population mean. Différentiel de sélection
Selection forest Forest treated and managed under the selection system. Forêt jardinée
Selection method A method of regenerating a forest stand and maintaining an uneven-aged structure by removing some trees in all size classes either singly or in small groups or strips. Jardinage
Selection pressure Environmental influences on an organism that determine its likelihood of being preferentially selected among its co-habitants, that is, having a better survival and/or reproduction. Pression sélective
Seminivorous Feeding on grain or seeds. Séminivore
Serotinous Coming late; particularly applied to plant species or individuals with cones that remain on the tree without opening for one or more years (e.g., Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana). Marcescent
Sexual reproduction Reproduction that involves the fusion of genetic material from two distinct entities. Reproduction sexuée
Shade system An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs whose canopy provides the appropriate level of shade to grow shade-requiring (perennial) crops. Système de production sous couvert forestier
Shark-fin barrel A mechanical site preparation device consisting of pairs of metal barrels on which are welded steel fins along opposing spiral lines. Rouleau nageoire-de-requin
Shearing 1. A method of harvest using mechanical shears. 2. The shaping of a tree crown, particularly with respect to Christmas trees or ornamentals, by removing part of the leader and/or the ends of live branches to comply with a desired crown for Abattage à la cisaille (mécanique)
Shelterbelt A strip of living trees and/or shrubs maintained mainly to provide shelter for open land from wind, desiccation, snow-drift, etc. Rideau-abri
Shelterwood cutting Any regeneration cutting in a more or less regular and mature crop, designed to establish a new crop under the protection (overhead or side) of the old, or where the resultant crop will be more or less regular. Coupes progressives
Shield Large area of Crystalline Precambrian rock that forms the core of continents. Bouclier
Shoot pruning Cutting away undesirable shoots to favor survival and growth of selected shoots. Élagage des rejets
Shortwood harvesting Felling and cross-cutting on the spot, i.e. transporting the logs from the cutting, not the whole bole or tree. Exploitation en bois courts
Shrub A perennial plant differing from a perennial herb in its persistent and woody stem(s), and less definitely from a tree in its lower stature and the general absence of a well-defined main stem. Arbrisseau
Side grain The surface of wood when it is cut parallel to the growth rings. Bois de fil
Silvics The study of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands, with particular reference to locality factors as a basis of silviculture. Écologie forestière
Silvicultural efficacity The capacity of a herbicide indirectly to promote positive growth responses in crop trees. Efficacité sylvicole
Silvicultural regime A series of stand tending (thinning, pruning, etc.) treatments applied after regeneration to achieve a specific stand management objective. Traitement sylvicole
Silvicultural system A process that applies silvicultural practices, including tending (thinning, pruning, etc.), harvesting, and replacement, to a stand in order to produce a crop of timber and other forest products. Note: the system is named by the cutting Régime sylvicole
Silviculture Practices aimed at ensuring wise harvesting of forest resources : conservation, regeneration, reforestation, cutting, etc. Sylviculture
Silviculture The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands to achieve the objectives of management. Sylviculture
Silvipasture An agroforestry system where trees and livestock are produced together. Système sylvopastoral
Silvopasture An agroforestry practice involving the compatible combination of tree growing with forage and livestock production in order to maximize both ecological and economic benefits. Sylvopastoralisme
Simple coppice system A coppice system in which the crop is clearcut and regenerated by stool shoots, stump sprouts, or root suckers, giving even-aged stands; rotation is relatively short. Taillis simple
Single tree selection A method of regenerating uneven-aged stands in which individual trees are removed more or less uniformly throughout the stand. Jardinage par arbre
Single-moldboard plough A plough with one moldboard, generally right-hand, turning the whole furrow slice to one side of the furrow. Charrue à versoir simple
Site A land area based on its climatic, physiographic, edaphic, and biotic factors that determine its suitability and productivity for particular species and silvicultural alternatives. Site
Site capability The mean annual increment in merchantable volume which can be expected for a forest area, assuming it is fully stocked by one or more species best adapted to the site, at or near rotation age. Expressed in cubic metres per he Potentiel de station
Site class Any interval into which the site index range is divided for purposes of classification and use. Classe de station
Site classification Application of analytical techniques based on macroclimate, soil, land form, and vegetation, to predict yield. Classification de station
Site factor An ecological term referring to a physical or biological parameter used to describe and distinguish sites. Facteur de station
Site improvement Modifications to a given site in order to improve growing conditions for a specific species or mixture of species. Amélioration de la station
Site index An expression of forest site quality based on the height, at a specified age, of dominant and codominant trees in a stand. May be grouped into site classes. Expressed in metres. Usually refers to a particular species. Indice de station
Site quality The productive capacity of a site; usually expressed as volume production of a given species per unit area (cubic metres per hectare) or per unit of time (cubic metres per year). Qualité de station
Size classes Ranges in tree sizes representing stages in the development of a tree or stand. Classe de dimension
Skeletonizer Organism that devours the upper layer of leaves but not the veins. Squeletteuse
Skidder A self-propelled logging machine with an articulated frame, used for hauling operations. Débardeur
Slash The residue left on the ground after felling and tending and/or accumulating there as a result of storm, fire, girdling, or treatment with herbicide. It includes unutilized logs, uprooted stumps, broken or uprooted stems. Rémanents
Slash burning Intentional burning of debris resulting from timber harvesting operations, where the fuel has not been piled or windrowed, allowing the fire to spread freely over the entire harvested area. Brûlage à plat
Slit planting Prying open a cut made by a spade, mattock, or planting bar (termed bar planting), inserting a young tree, then closing the cut on the latter by pressure. Plantation en fente
Slope of grain The angle made between the long axis of wood cells (the grain direction) and the length of a piece of wood. Pente de fil
Smog Mixture of polluting particles and water drops in the atmosphere that forms a thick fog in industrial regions. Smog
Smouldering fire A fire burning without flame and barely spreading. Feu couvant
Snag A standing dead tree from which the leaves and most of the branches have fallen. Chicot
Snagging Removing or cutting away snags, on land or in water. Arasement des chicots
Snail-feeding Pertaining to an organism that feeds on snails. Héliciphage
Soft snag A snag composed primarily of wood in advanced stages of decay and deterioration, particularly in the sapwood portion. Chicot pourri
Somatic embryogenesis A process by which clones are produced by cell growth from a seed embryo. Embryogenèse somatique
Sowing brick A prepared, sometimes fertilized, block or ball of loam, peat, plastic foam, etc., into which one or more seeds are pressed, so that, on planting out, the emergent seedling can have a better start in an unfavorable environment. Motte à semis
Spacing The distance between trees in a plantation, a thinned stand, or a natural stand. v: see thinning: spacing Espacement
Specialty wood product Any forest commodity made of wood and not intended for the high-volume conventional forest sector, thus excluding lumber, fibreboard, and pulp and paper. Examples include carvings, canoes, snowshoes, bowls, utensils, toys, jewellery, decorative boxes, and musical instruments. Specialty wood products often enhance the value of residual wood from forest harvesting (for example, tree stumps, knotted trees, and blue-stained wood attacked by the mountain pine beetle) or of shrub and tree species with a unique wood grain pattern (for example, bird’s eye maple). Produit du bois spécialisé
Species Group of individuals that possess common characteristics and are capable of producing fertile progeny Espèce
SPF (spruce-pine-fir) Canadian woods of similar characteristics that are grouped as one lumber type for production and marketing purposes. EPS (épinette-pin-sapin)
Spore Cell or group of cells capable of producing a new organism. Spore
Spore print Deposit of spores released into the air or onto a surface when a fungus cap is placed gills downwards. Sporée
Spot Circular or nearly circular lesions that appear on a leaf blade. They have a central zone of necrotic (dead, brown) tissue colonized by a pathogen; this zone is surrounded by healthy, coloured tissue. Tache
Spot planting Setting out young trees in small, prepared patches. Plantation sur placeaux
Spot scarifier A scarification implement enabling site preparation on patches. Scarificateur sur placeaux
Spot weeding Removing undesirable vegetation from patches. Désherbage localisé
Spreader Any substance, solid or liquid, that, when added to a pesticide, herbicide, liquid fertilizer, or fire retardant, enables it to spread better over the surfaces on which it is deposited. Dispersant
Sprout Generally, any shoot arising from a plant. More particularly, a shoot arising from the base of a plant, from the stool (stool shoot) or from the root (sucker). Rejet de taillis
Square edged When each of the four edges of a piece of lumber form a clean 90-degree angle with no wane. Avivé
Stage Distinct period separating the successive moults that occur during larval development. Period or phase in the life cycle of anthropods. Eg, egg stage, larval stage, pupal stage and adult stage. Stade
Stagnant Describes condition of stands whose growth and development have all but ceased due to poor site and/or excessive stocking. Bloqué
Stand A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas, thus forming a silvicultural or management entity. Peuplement
Stand condition The descriptive measurement of a stand by the criteria of composition, health, age, size, volume, or spatial arrangement. État d’un peuplement
Stand density A quantitative measurement of tree stocking, expressed in terms of number of trees, total basal area, or volume, per unit of area. More precisely, a measure of the degree of crowding of trees within a stand. Densité de peuplement
Stand model A mathematical model that forecasts the development of a forest stand, usually in terms of mean stand attributes, e.g., mean diameter, height. Modèle de peuplement
Stand table A summary table showing the number of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. The data may also be presented in the form of a frequency distribution of diameter classes. Table de peuplement
Standard A tree selected to remain standing, after the rest of the stand has been felled over a younger or a new crop, for some special purpose, e.g., shelter, seeding, production of a special quality or size of timber. Réserve
Status Indians People who are entitled to have their names included on the Indian Register, an official list maintained by the federal government. Status Indians are entitled to certain rights and benefits under the law. Indiens inscrits
Sterile tree Tree incapable of reproducing sexually. Arbre stérile
Stewardship The science, art and skill of responsible and accountable management of resources. Intendance
Stock table A summary table showing the volume of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. Table de stock
Stocked forest land Land supporting tree growth. In this context, tree growth includes seedlings and saplings. Terrain forestier boisé
Stocked quadrat In regeneration surveys, a quadrat having at least one live tree seedling or regrowth. The criteria for what constitutes a "stocked" area vary with species, site, country, etc. Parcelle régénérée
Stocking A qualitative expression of the adequacy of tree cover on an area, in terms of crown closure, number of trees, basal area, or volume, in relation to a preestablished norm. Densité relative
Stocking guide Reference level for the optimum proportion of an area actually occupied by trees, expressed in terms of stocked quadrats or percentage of canopy closure. Guide de stocking
Stoma Microscopic opening, many of which are found on the underside of plant leaves, permitting transpiration and gaseous exchanges (pl. stomata). Stomate
Stool 1. Silviculture: A living stump capable of producing sprouts or shoots. 2. Propagation: A living stump maintained to produce cuttings, layers, etc. Souche-mère
Storied high forest A crop of trees in which the canopy can be differentiated into one or more layers, the dominant species in natural forest generally differing in each layer. Futaie pluriétagée
Story A horizontal stratum or layer in a plant community; in forests, appearing as one or more canopies. A forest having more than two stories is called multistoried. A forest having one story (the main story) is called single-storied. Étage
Strand (wood) A specialized knife-cut wood flake of controlled thickness and a length along the grain orientation of at least twice and usually many times its width. Copeau long
Stratification The storage of seeds under defined conditions of environment (temperature, moisture, gas exchange, medium, etc.) for specified periods in order to overcome passive or active inhibition of germination. Stratification
Stressed-skin panel An insulated building panel made from a rigid insulation core (like styrofoam) and covered by two sheets of structural panel material. Panneau sandwich
Strip cropping Crop planting in which strips of heavy-rooted plants are alternated with loose-rooted plants which serve as barriers to wind and water erosion. Plantation en lisières
Strip cutting Removal of the crop in strips in more than one operations, generally for encouraging natural regeneration or protecting fragile sites. Considered to be a variation of clearcutting. Coupe par bandes
Strip planting Setting trees, generally in two or more parallel lines, in a long narrow area of land that has been wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en bandes
Structural lumber Wood suitable for framing and load-bearing structures essentially by virtue of its strength. Bois de charpente
Structural panel A wide, flat material used as a load-bearing component in wooden construction (such as floors, wall sheathing, roof sheathing) or to make ncrete forms. Panneau structural
Structure The distribution of trees in a stand or group by age, size, or crown classes (e.g., all-aged, even-aged, uneven-aged, regular, and irregular structures). Structure
Stub The broken or cut base of a branch projecting from a tree stem. Chicot
Stud A vertical structural member used in construction of walls—typically 92 5/8 inches tall. Montant
Stump Part of trunk with roots remaining after a tree has been cut down. Souche
Stump extraction A general term for the process of pulling out stumps by force. Removal of stumps may be done to facilitate scarification or to prevent infection from diseased root systems. Dessouchage
Stump treatment Application of herbicides to or near hardwood stumps to prevent coppicing. Also, fungicides or paint can be applied to prevent fungal infection. Badigeonnage de souches
Stumpage fee The fee paid by an individual or company for the timber they harvest from public forests or privately owned forest land. Droit de coupe
Stunted Characteristic of a plant that has not developed normally and resembles a bonsai. Rabougris
Stylet Sharp, stiff structure in the mouth parts of certain piercing-sucking insects and barb in bees and wasps. Stylet
Substantial equivalence A principle for safety assessment that compares a genetically modified product to a traditional non-modified product of the same species with a long history of safe use. A genetically modified product is substantially equivalent to the non-modified one if it is as safe to the environment and human health. Équivalence en substance
Succession The gradual supplanting of one community of plants by another, the sequence of communities being termed a sere and each stage seral. Succession
Sucker A shoot or tree originating from adventitious buds on roots. Drageon
Sucking Pertains to an organism that has mouth parts modified for sucking food, by means of a tube or proboscis (beak). Suceur
Sucking (lapping) Pertains to an organism that has mouth parts designed for collecting flower nectar. Lécheur
Sun system An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs with agricultural crops or forest-derived crops that require full sun. As the trees/shrubs grow, the canopy closes, and the level of shade increases, a sun system may become a shade system or another agroforestry system. (See also intercropping.) Système de production à découvert
Sustainability The capacity of forests, ranging from stands to ecoregions, to maintain their health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity, in the long run, in the context of human activity and use. The concept of producing a biological resource under management practices that ensure replacement of the part harvested, by regrowth or reproduction, before another harvest occurs. Durabilité
Sustainable development Sustainable development in forestry expands the principle of sustained timber yield by including wildlife and fish habitats, watersheds and hydrological cycles, as well as gene pools and species diversity. Développement durable
Sustainable forest development The development of forests to meet current needs without prejudice to their future productivity, ecological diversity or capacity for regeneration. Développement durable des forêts
Sustainable forest management Management that maintains and enhances the long-term health of forest ecosystems for the benefit of all living things while providing environmental, economic, social and cultural opportunities for present and future generations. Aménagement forestier durable
Sustainable forestry Management of forested area in order to provide wood products in perpetuity, soil and watershed integrity, persistence of most native species and maintenance of highly sensitive species or suitable conditions. Foresterie durable
Sustainable Forestry Initiative A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality. Sustainable Forestry Initiative
Sustained yield The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management. Rendement soutenu
Sustained-yield forestry The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management. Foresterie à rendement soutenu
Symbiotic association The living together in intimate association of two dissimilar organisms, so that the cohabitation is mutually beneficial. Association symbiotique
Synthesis gas A mixture of gases resulting from reacting carbon rich substances with steam in a reduced oxygen environment (partial oxidation), which contains mostly carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The organic source materials can be biomass, natural gas, methane, naphtha, heavy petroleum oils and coke (coal). Gaz de synthèse
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