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Sustainable forest management

Term Definition French
Adaptive management A dynamic approach to forest management in which the effects of treatments and decisions are continually monitored and used, along with research results, to modify management on a continuing basis to ensure that objectives are being met. Gestion adaptative
Afforestation The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always, or for very long, been absent. Where such establishment fails and is repeated, the latter may properly be termed reafforestation. Boisement
Agroforestry The deliberate integration, in space or time, of woody perennials with herbaceous crops and/or animals on the same land management unit. Agroforesterie
Allowable cut The volume of wood that may be harvested, under management, for a given period. Possibilité de coupe
Biodiversity The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity). Biodiversité
Biogas A combustible gas and type of biofuel produced by the decomposition of biological materials (for example, forestry residues and municipal waste) through anaerobic digestion (that is, in the absence of oxygen) or fermentation. Typical biogas consists of 50 to 60% methane and carbon dioxide. Biogaz
Biomass The total mass of living organisms of one or more species per unit of area, or all the species in a community. It can be divided into above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass. Biomasse
Biomass The organic matter (cellulose and lignin) produced by plants. The term forest biomass generally refers to all of the material contained in the trees of a forest, including all their components (roots, branches, leaves, etc.). Biomasse
Canadian Council of Forest Ministers A forum for the federal, provincial and territorial governments to work cooperatively, through their respective ministers, in addressing major areas of common interest concerning Canada’s forests. The Canadian Forest Service of Natural Resources Canada serves as the council’s secretariat. Conseil canadien des ministres des forêts
Canadian Standards Association (CSA) A leading developer of standards and codes, including an internationally recognized forestry certification system. The CSA is a not-for-profit, membership-based association. Association canadienne de normalisation (CSA)
Carbon A chemical element highly abundant in nature and easily capable of forming polymers. Its unique properties make carbon the chemical basis of all biological compounds—and therefore, the chemical basis of life. Carbon is incorporated into biological processes and biomass mainly through plant photosynthesis. (See also carbon dioxide.) Carbone
Carbon budget Comparative evaluation of the amount of carbon stored in natural forests (sinks) and the amount emitted by them (sources), which is undertaken to determine whether the forests are sequestering more carbon than they are emitting to the atmosphere. Carbon budgets can be drawn up on various scales, including global. Bilan de carbone
Carbon footprint The total direct greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions produced by a facility to manufacture a range of products or an individual product. Empreinte carbone
Carbon sequestration The uptake and storage of carbon. Trees and plants, for example, absorb carbon dioxide, release the oxygen and store the carbon. Fossil fuels were at one time biomass and continue to store the carbon until burned. Piégeage de carbone
Certification (forest) Forest certification is a market-based instrument aimed at promoting sustainable forest management that takes into account environmental, economic and social issues. It involves the independent assessment of forest management according to internationally (or nationally) accepted standards, and the tracking and monitoring of the supply of forest products to the market place. If the forest management is in compliance with a set of specified standards, and the timber from this forest has been tracked and accounted for through all stages of the production process, then it can be given a label which is recognized in the market place. Certification forestière
Chain of custody The process of monitoring the production and distribution of goods from the forest to the end-product, i.e., tracing the origin of the product. Continuité de possession
Climate change mitigation Human intervention to reduce the effects of climate change. Atténuation du changement climatique
Commercial forest Forest land that is able to grow commercial timber within an acceptable time frame and is designated for such a purpose. Forêt d'intérêt commercial
Compatible management The management of forest lands using strategies and practices that increase the productivity of both timber and non-timber resources. Aménagement compatible
Compensatory planting Creating plantations in one area in order to replace, in part or whole, a loss of growing stock elsewhere. Reboisement de compensation
Deforestation Permanent removal of forest cover and withdrawal of land from forest use, whether deliberately or circumstantially. Déboisement
Digital model Computer-based representation of a mathematical model describing natural phenomena. These models use complex equations to perform essentially mathematical simulations of natural phenomena. They are used to study and test hypotheses about tides, climate change, the changes in an insect population or a forest, and so on. Modèles numériques
Ecosystem The sum of the plants, animals, environmental influences, and their interactions within a particular habitat. Écosystème
Ecosystem-based management Management systems that attempt to simulate ecological processes with the goal of maintaining a satisfactory level of diversity in natural landscapes and their pattern of distribution in order to ensure the sustainability of forest ecosystem processes. Aménagement écosystémique
Ecotourism A type of tourism that focuses on nature-related experiences (for example, bird watching). Écotourisme
Emissions Waste substances released into the air or water. Émissions
Environmental assessment A process designed to contribute pertinent environmental information to the decision-making process of forest management or other natural resource projects and programs. Évaluation environnementale
Environmental goods and services Benefits humans get directly or indirectly from ecosystem functions. Ecosystem functions are the "…habitat, biological or system properties or processes of ecosystems" (Costanza et al. 1997). They include clean air and water, soil retention, and wildlife habitat, to name a few. Biens et services écologiques [ou environnementaux]
Featured-species management A type of wildlife management that does not attempt to manage for all species, but selects a few species of particular concern or interest (for example, big game species or endangered species) and aims management programs at them. With respect to habitat, it is generally assumed that providing habitat for these species provides habitat for other species as well. Gestion axée sur les espèces
Forest Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern. Forêt
Forest Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. Forêt
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) An international certification and labelling system under which forests are certified against strict environmental and social standards, and fibre from certified forests is tracked from the forest to consumers. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Forestry Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. Foresterie
Green manuring Increasing the fertility of soil by raising suitable herbaceous crops on it, particularly Fabaceae, but also Cruciferae and Gramineae, and digging or ploughing them while succulent, with or without supplementary fertilizers. Engrais vert
Greenhouse gas sinks Any process, activity or mechanism that removes greenhouse gases or their precursors from the atmosphere. The principal natural mechanism is photosynthesis. Puits de gaz à effet de serre
Greenhouse gas source Any process or activity (for example, forest fires or conversion of forest land to agricultural or urban uses) that releases greenhouse gases or precursors of those gases into the atmosphere. As trees and forest products decompose or burn, they release carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. Source de gaz à effet de serre
Guild management A method of management by which species are assembled into groups based on similarities in their habitat requirements. One species is selected to indicate the group; conserving the habitat of that particular species ensures the conservation of other members of the guild. Gestion par association
Heritage forest A forest managed to harvest forest products and to sustain the natural system, including its bioproductivity, biotic and abiotic diversity. Modern technology, equipment and methods may be used to harvest, restock and tend the forest, with an emphasis on natural restocking, supplemented with artificial restocking of appropriate endemic species. Forêt patrimoniale
Holistic approach Broad brush approach based on a theory according to which a whole cannot be analyzed without considering the sum of its parts or reduced to discrete elements. Approche globale
Industrial plantation forestry Tree cultivation using methods of intensive silviculture: plantations made up of genetically improved stock, fertilization, drainage, phytosanitary treatments, release of higher quality stems, etc. Ligniculture
Integrated landscape management (ILM) The integrated planning and assessment of land uses and human activities over whole landscapes to ensure the long-term economic, social and environmental sustainability of ecosystems and their resources. It is applied at appropriate temporal and spatial scales necessary to achieve multiple management objectives. Aménagement intégré du paysage (AIP)
Integrated pest management The use of a mix of techniques and/or strategies to control pests, as opposed to the application of a single method. Lutte intégrée contre les ravageurs
Integrated resource management A holistic approach to resource management that entails the management of two or more resources (for example, water, soil, timber, pasture, wildlife, and recreation) and that integrates the values of the community into the design of policies or projects to use and sustain these resources in perpetuity. Gestion intégrée des ressources
Intercropping An agroforestry system involving the cultivation of agricultural crops or forest-derived crops that require full sun between rows (or other arrangements) of trees or shrubs. (See also sun system.) Culture intercalaire
Inventory (forest) A survey of a forest area to determine data such as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting. Inventaire forestier
Landscape Areas of land that are distinguished by differences in landforms, vegetation, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Paysage
Management plan A predetermined course of action and direction to achieve a set of results, usually specified as goals, objectives and policies. Plan d'aménagement
Model forest A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis. Forêt modèle
Mortality Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting. Mortalité
Multiple forest use A system of resource use where the forest resources in a given land unit serve more than one user. Utilisation intégrée de la forêt
National forest strategy An overarching national vision and framework for Canada’s forests developed by the Council of Canadian Forest Ministers. The first strategy appeared in 1981. Stratégie nationale sur la forêt
Non-timber forest products Any commodity obtained from the forest that does not necessitate harvesting trees. It includes game animals, fur-bearers, nuts and seeds, berries, mushrooms, oils, foliage, medicinal plants, peat, fuelwood, forage, etc. Produit forestier non ligneux (PFNL)
Non-timber value A value within the forest other than timber that includes, but is not limited to, biological diversity, fisheries, wildlife, minerals, water quality and quantity, recreation and tourism, cultural heritage values, and wilderness and aesthetic values. Valeurs non ligneuses
Opportunity wood Potential woody biomass resources available for salvage following natural disturbances—for example, wood damaged by insect pests such as the mountain pine beetle, by disease, or by fire or wind — or forestry activities — for example, small-diameter or other trees left standing. In some cases, harvesting and construction residues are also viewed as opportunity wood. Bois d’occasion
Plantation forestry Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand. Foresterie de plantation
Protection forest All forest land managed primarily to exert beneficial influence on soil, water, landscape, or for any other purpose when production of merchantable timber, if any, is incidental. Forêt de protection
Protein A functional organic macromolecule assembled from amino acids linked with peptide bonds; a product of gene expression. Protéine
Reforestation syn. reafforestation Successful renewal of a forest crop by planting or direct seeding. Création de forêt
Resilience The capacity of a community or ecosystem to maintain or regain normal function and development following disturbance. Résilience
Riparian forest buffer A strip of forested land of variable width adjacent to a flowing body of fresh water, which it influences and is affected by. Prone to flooding, a riparian forest buffer can be integrated into an agroforestry system and help counter stream bank erosion, protect water quality, and regularize water flow. Bande riveraine
Seminivorous Feeding on grain or seeds. Séminivore
Silvipasture An agroforestry system where trees and livestock are produced together. Système sylvopastoral
Silvopasture An agroforestry practice involving the compatible combination of tree growing with forage and livestock production in order to maximize both ecological and economic benefits. Sylvopastoralisme
Stewardship The science, art and skill of responsible and accountable management of resources. Intendance
Sustainability The capacity of forests, ranging from stands to ecoregions, to maintain their health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity, in the long run, in the context of human activity and use. The concept of producing a biological resource under management practices that ensure replacement of the part harvested, by regrowth or reproduction, before another harvest occurs. Durabilité
Sustainable development Sustainable development in forestry expands the principle of sustained timber yield by including wildlife and fish habitats, watersheds and hydrological cycles, as well as gene pools and species diversity. Développement durable
Sustainable forest development The development of forests to meet current needs without prejudice to their future productivity, ecological diversity or capacity for regeneration. Développement durable des forêts
Sustainable forest management Management that maintains and enhances the long-term health of forest ecosystems for the benefit of all living things while providing environmental, economic, social and cultural opportunities for present and future generations. Aménagement forestier durable
Sustainable forestry Management of forested area in order to provide wood products in perpetuity, soil and watershed integrity, persistence of most native species and maintenance of highly sensitive species or suitable conditions. Foresterie durable
Sustainable Forestry Initiative A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality. Sustainable Forestry Initiative
Timberbelt Multiple rows of trees planted to provide environmental benefits (including wind protection, soil conservation, and wildlife corridors) and the opportunity for woody biomass production for conversion into bioenergy and other bioproducts. It can also act as an agroforestry system for the production of agricultural or forest-derived crops. Haie brise-vent
Virgin forest Natural forest, the development of which has been virtually uninfluenced by modern human activity. Forêt vierge
Watershed The area drained by an underground or surface stream, or by a system of streams. Bassin hydrographique
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