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Boreal forest

Term Definition French
Acid precipitation Rain, snow, sleet, hail or fog, usually with acidity below pH 5.6. Acidic precipitation is primarily the result of emissions of gases of sulphur and nitrogen oxides which are transformed into sulphuric acid and nitric acid respectively as they are transported over distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometres from their source. Précipitation acide
Adaptive management A dynamic approach to forest management in which the effects of treatments and decisions are continually monitored and used, along with research results, to modify management on a continuing basis to ensure that objectives are being met. Gestion adaptative
Advance regeneration Young trees under existing stands capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation. Régénération préexistante
Air pruning Limiting extension of a root system beyond a container by exposure to air. Élagage aérien
Allowable cut The volume of wood that may be harvested, under management, for a given period. Possibilité de coupe
Area ignition The setting of a number of individual fires throughout an area, either simultaneously or in quick succession, and so spaced that they soon coalesce, influence, and support each other to produce a hot, fast-spreading fire throughout the area. Allumage de zone
Artificial regeneration Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings. Régénération artificielle
Auger planting Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole using an auger. Plantation à la tarière
Avifauna Birds, in particular, all the birds of a given site: the avifauna of a marsh, a prairie, etc. Avifaune
Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) A biological insecticide developed in Canada. This natural bacterium, which occurs in soils, is sprayed on forests to combat damaging insects. Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
Ball planting Setting out trees with their roots left undisturbed in a dug-out clod of soil. Note: if trees are bare-rooted, and roots are enclosed in a rough ball of soil, they are properly termed balled. Plantation en mottes
Band application Applying pesticides and/or fertilizers in a linear strip on or along crop rows rather than over the entire ground area. Pulvérisation en bandes
Basal area 1. Of a tree: The area in square metres of the cross section at breast height of the stem. 2. Of a forest, stand, or forest type: The area in square metres per hectare of the cross section at breast height of all trees. Surface terrière
Basic forest management Extensive forest management plus artificial regeneration where necessary. cf. extensive forest management Aménagement forestier de base
Basic silviculture All the silvicultural practices required to achieve free-growing (or established) regeneration of desired species at specified densities and stocking. Sylviculture de base
Basket planting Setting out young trees, etc., in loosely-woven baskets in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en paniers
Biological pest control methods The application of whole organisms or portions of organisms as biologically sound alternatives to broad-spectrum chemical pesticides. Méthodes de lutte biologique contre les ravageurs
Biomass The total mass of living organisms of one or more species per unit of area, or all the species in a community. It can be divided into above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass. Biomasse
Biomass The organic matter (cellulose and lignin) produced by plants. The term forest biomass generally refers to all of the material contained in the trees of a forest, including all their components (roots, branches, leaves, etc.). Biomasse
Biome A major biotic community composed of all the plants and animals in a specific geographical region and smaller biotic communities. The smaller communities in a biome possess similarities in gross external appearances and gross climatic conditions. Biome
Biopesticide A pesticide derived from natural sources such as fungi and bacteria or created to closely resemble or be identical to a chemical produced in nature such as a pheromone. Typically a biopesticide is target-specific and has little or no impact on non-target organisms and the environment. Biopesticide
Black liquor A liquid solution by-product of the so-called “kraft” wood pulping process, composed of lignin residues, hemicellulose, and the chemicals used in the process. Polluting if discharged into water, black liquor can be recovered and put to good use to create value-added bioproducts. Liqueur noire
Block cutting Removal of the crop in blocks in one or more operations, generally for wildlife management purposes, encouraging regeneration, or protecting fragile sites. Considered in Ontario to be a variation of clearcutting. Coupe par blocs
Blowdown Tree or trees felled or broken off by wind, snow, ice or age. Chablis
Boreal forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also tropical forest, temperate forest) located in northern regions and is characterized by the predominance of conifers (such as pine, spruce, larch and fir) and some deciduous (such as poplar and birch). The boreal forest (singular) is a colloquial term often used to refer to the overall forested area within the boreal zone, and sometimes to refer to the boreal zone itself because forests dominate this landscape. Boreal forests (plural) is the preferred term for the forested areas within the boreal zone. Forêt boréale
Boreal zone The broad circumpolar vegetation zone of the high northern latitudes. Although mainly covered with trees, the boreal zone is more than just forest. It contains lakes, rivers and wetlands, as well as naturally treeless terrain such as alpine areas, heathlands in regions where the climate is influenced by the ocean, and grasslands in drier areas. Zone boréale
Box pruning Lateral root pruning on four sides of nursery stock in situ. Previous undercutting is usually implicit. Élagage latéral (des racines)
Buffer zone A strip of land where disturbances are not allowed, or are closely monitored, to preserve aesthetic and other qualities adjacent to roads, trails, waterways and recreation sites. Zone tampon
Bullet planting Setting out young trees grown in bullet-shaped rigid plastic tubes, which are injected into the ground by a spring-loaded gun, sometimes into prepared holes. Plantation en cartouches
Carbon A chemical element highly abundant in nature and easily capable of forming polymers. Its unique properties make carbon the chemical basis of all biological compounds—and therefore, the chemical basis of life. Carbon is incorporated into biological processes and biomass mainly through plant photosynthesis. (See also carbon dioxide.) Carbone
Carbon budget Comparative evaluation of the amount of carbon stored in natural forests (sinks) and the amount emitted by them (sources), which is undertaken to determine whether the forests are sequestering more carbon than they are emitting to the atmosphere. Carbon budgets can be drawn up on various scales, including global. Bilan de carbone
Carbon dioxide (CO2) A colourless, odourless, non-combustible gas. Humans and all other living organisms give off carbon dioxide in respiration and decomposition. Trees and other plants absorb it and use it during photosynthesis. CO2 also emitted as a by-product of burning fossil fuels. Dioxyde de carbone (CO2)
Carbon footprint The total direct greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions produced by a facility to manufacture a range of products or an individual product. Empreinte carbone
Carbon neutrality When the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere equals the amount sequestered or offset. Neutralité carbonique
Carbon sequestration The uptake and storage of carbon. Trees and plants, for example, absorb carbon dioxide, release the oxygen and store the carbon. Fossil fuels were at one time biomass and continue to store the carbon until burned. Piégeage de carbone
Carbon sink A carbon reservoir that absorbs and stores carbon from another part of the carbon cycle. A sink stores more carbon than it emits to the atmosphere. This store of carbon can also be termed a reservoir or pool. Although a growing forest can be considered a carbon sink, when the forest stops growing and its trees die and start decomposing, it becomes a carbon source, because it emits more carbon than it stores. Puits de carbone
Certification (forest) Forest certification is a market-based instrument aimed at promoting sustainable forest management that takes into account environmental, economic and social issues. It involves the independent assessment of forest management according to internationally (or nationally) accepted standards, and the tracking and monitoring of the supply of forest products to the market place. If the forest management is in compliance with a set of specified standards, and the timber from this forest has been tracked and accounted for through all stages of the production process, then it can be given a label which is recognized in the market place. Certification forestière
Chevron cuts A modification of strip cutting where the strip is angled part way along its length. Coupe par chevrons
Clear wood Knot-free wood formed subsequent to pruning. Bois sans défaut
Clearcut n: An area of forest land from which all merchantable trees have recently been harvested. syn. clearcutting v: To harvest all merchantable trees from an area of forest land. Coupe à blanc
Clearcutting A silvicultural method in which most merchantable trees in a stand are harvested simultaneously, producing a fully exposed microclimate for the development of a new age class. Coupe à blanc
Clearcutting method A method of regenerating an even-aged forest stand in which new seedlings become established in fully exposed microenvironments after removal of most or all of the existing trees. Regeneration can originate naturally or artificially. Mode de régénération par coupe à blanc
Commercial forest Forest land that is able to grow commercial timber within an acceptable time frame and is designated for such a purpose. Forêt d'intérêt commercial
Competition control A treatment designed to reduce the competitive effect of undesirable vegetation threatening the success of the regeneration of desirable tree species. cf. brushing, cleaning Lutte contre la concurrence végétale
Competitive exclusion In ecology, principle (also known as Gause’s principle) that states no two species can occupy exactly the same fundamental niche indefinitely in a habitat where they are competing for the same essential resource, and that one species will crowd out the other. Exclusion compétitive
Cone rake A device for collecting cones from a standing tree; it is lowered from a helicopter, over the crown of a tree. Cones or cone-bearing branches are removed and retrieved by the device. Cueilleur de cônes
Conifer Member of a group of trees commonly called softwoods or gymnosperms. The word gymnosperm, from the Greek gymnos (naked) and sperma (seed), means "naked-seeded." This refers to the fact that conifer seeds are not contained in fruit tissue. The seeds are instead borne on scales, which are grouped together to form cones. Most conifers have persistent foliage consisting of needles or scales. Conifère
Contained root A root that does not elongate beyond the confines of the original rooting volume within a container, even when outplanted with the container removed. Racine contenue
Continuous boreal forest Main subarea of the vast boreal zone, which is characterized by relatively dense stands containing primarily boreal coniferous species and shade-intolerant deciduous trees. Forêt boréale continue
Contour planting Setting out of young trees along a contour line. Plantation en bandes de niveau
Coppicing Cutting trees close to ground level with a view to their producing coppice shoots. Coupe de rajeunissement
Corridor planting Setting trees in parallel rows, generally at regular intervals between and in lines, on land either wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en lignes
Crop The harvestable vegetation growing on a forest area, more particularly the major woody growth forming the forest crop. Peuplement forestier
Crown fire A fire that advances through the crown fuel layer, the upper part of the tree bearing live branches and foliage. Feu de cime
Cull Trees or logs or portions thereof that are of merchantable size but are rendered unmerchantable by defects. In nursery practice, a seedling that does not match the grade or specifications. Rebut
Cutover An area of forest land from which some or all timber has recently been cut. Coupe totale
Cutting regime System of cutting treatments applied to a stand at a defined period. Régime d’exploitation
Deadwood Timber produced from dead standing trees. More commonly, timber in dead standing trees. Bois mort
Decay Decomposition of wood caused by micro-organisms, mostly fungi. The wood generally becomes soft and crumbly, loses density and changes colour. Carie
Deciduous species Trees that lose their leaves in the fall, such as birch, maple and basswood, are deciduous species. “Deciduous” means falling off or shed seasonally. Espèce arborescente décidue
Defoliation The removal of all or most of a plant’s leaves by natural disturbance agents (e.g., insects) or through the actions of humans (e.g., the application of herbicides). Défoliation
Deforestation Permanent removal of forest cover and withdrawal of land from forest use, whether deliberately or circumstantially. Déboisement
Dibble planting Sowing seeds or setting out seedlings in rough holes made with a stick or peg. Also termed dibbling if done with a specially adapted tool such as a dibble. Plantation au bâton
Digital model Computer-based representation of a mathematical model describing natural phenomena. These models use complex equations to perform essentially mathematical simulations of natural phenomena. They are used to study and test hypotheses about tides, climate change, the changes in an insect population or a forest, and so on. Modèles numériques
Disease Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants. Maladie
Disease Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin. Maladie
Drainage Hydrology/engineering: The process of removal of water from soil, particularly by surface runoff and subsurface percolation and artificially by measures for hastening removal, e.g., by ditching. Drainage
Duff layer A general term referring to the litter and humus layers of the forest floor. Litière
Ecodistrict A part of an ecoregion characterized by distinctive geologic, soil, water, fauna and land use. Écodistrict
Ecoregion A part of an ecozone characterized by distinctive regional ecological factors, including climate, physical geography, vegetation, soil, water, fauna and land use. Écorégion
Ecosystem The sum of the plants, animals, environmental influences, and their interactions within a particular habitat. Écosystème
Ecosystem-based management Management systems that attempt to simulate ecological processes with the goal of maintaining a satisfactory level of diversity in natural landscapes and their pattern of distribution in order to ensure the sustainability of forest ecosystem processes. Aménagement écosystémique
Ecotype A race (provenance) adapted to the selective action of a particular environment. Ecotypes are described in terms of the primary environmental influence, e.g., climatic or edaphic. Écotype
Ecozone An area of the Earth's surface representing large and very generalized ecological units characterized by interacting abiotic (non-living) and biotic (living) factors. Écozone
Edge habitat A loosely defined type of habitat that occurs at the boundary between two different habitat types. Typically, edge habitats share characteristics with both adjacent habitat types and have particular transitional characteristics that are important to wildlife. Habitat de lisière
Emissions Waste substances released into the air or water. Émissions
Engineered wood products A composite wood product made from glued fibre, lumber and/or veneer to meet specific design criteria. Produits du bois de haute technologie
Entomology Part of zoology concerned with the study of insects. Entomologie
Environmental assessment A process designed to contribute pertinent environmental information to the decision-making process of forest management or other natural resource projects and programs. Évaluation environnementale
Epicormic shoot syn. sprout A shoot arising from a dormant or adventitious bud on the stem or branch of a woody plant. Pousse adventive
Establishment The process of developing a crop to the stage at which the young trees may be considered established, i.e., safe from juvenile mortality and no longer in need of special protection or special tending, but only routine cleaning and thinning. Établissement
Eutrophication The enrichment of water by nutrients, especially compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus, that will accelerate the growth of algae and higher forms of plant life. This enrichment may interfere with the normal ecological balance of the receiving waters. Eutrophisation
Even-aged Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees. The differences in age permitted are usually 10 to 20 years. Équienne
Even-aged (forest) A forest stand or type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees (usually 10–20 years). Équienne (forêt)
Even-aged system Silvicultural systems in which stands have an even-aged structure, e.g., clearcutting method, coppice method, seed-tree method. Régime équienne
Falldown A situation in which second-growth forests provide less timber than the original forests. Exploitation secondaire
Fauna A general term for all forms of animal life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Faune
Featured-species management A type of wildlife management that does not attempt to manage for all species, but selects a few species of particular concern or interest (for example, big game species or endangered species) and aims management programs at them. With respect to habitat, it is generally assumed that providing habitat for these species provides habitat for other species as well. Gestion axée sur les espèces
Fibre (wood) A material in which the wood is reduced to predominantly individual fibres by mechanical or chemical means, or a combination of the two. Virgin fibre is derived from trees not previously processed into paper; recycled fibre has been reclaimed from a previous product such as old newsprint and reprocessed and incorporated into a new product. Fibre (ligneuse)
Field nursery A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies. Pépinière volante
Fill planting The planting of trees in areas of inadequate stocking to achieve the desired level of stocking, either in plantations or areas of natural regeneration. cf. interplanting Regarni
Final cutting The last of a series of progressive regeneration cuts which removes the last of the original seed trees when the regeneration is considered established. Coupe définitive
Fire hazard reduction Any treatment of fuels that reduces the threat of ignition and spread of fire. Réduction du risque d’incendie
Fire weather index The fire weather index (FWI) is part of an approach that Canadian meteorologists use to estimate the wildfire risk in forest regions. Calculation of the index components is based on consecutive daily observations of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and 24-hour rainfall. Indice forêt-météo
Flora A general term for all forms of plant life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Flore
Forest Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern. Forêt
Forest Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. Forêt
Forest hygiene Care for the health of the forest, particularly by sanitation cutting. Hygiène sylvicole
Forest land Land primarily intended for growing, or currently supporting, forest. It includes land not now forested (for example, clearcut lands and northern lands that are forested but not intended for any commercial forestry use) and plantations. Terres forestières
Forest management That branch of forestry concerned with the overall administrative, economic, legal and social aspects and with the essentially scientific and technical aspects, especially silviculture, protection and forest regulation. Aménagement forestier
Forest management unit An area of forest land managed as a unit for fiber production and other renewable resources. This unit can be the entire province or territory, a provincial forest management subdivision, an industrial timber limit, etc. Unité d’aménagement forestier
Forest model A computer-based simulation that, within definable parameters, forecasts the development of a forest. Modèle de forêt
Forest practices Any activities that enhance or recover forest growth or harvest yield (e.g., site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.), and road construction or reconstruction within forest lands. Pratiques forestières
Forest regions classification A process of delineating large geographic areas according to landform and climate, associated with broad variations in overall forest composition. Classification des régions forestières
Forest sector The forest sector includes governments, conservation and environmental groups, woodlot owners, Aboriginals, urban forestry interests, lumber and pulp and paper producers and value-added industries, forest-reliant communities, the recreation and tourism industries, and other sectors of the economy (including the energy, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries) that derive wealth and well-being from forest resources. Secteur forestier
Forest site see forest site type Site forestier
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) An international certification and labelling system under which forests are certified against strict environmental and social standards, and fibre from certified forests is tracked from the forest to consumers. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Forest type A group of forested areas or stands of similar composition; forest types are usually separated and identified by species composition and often by height and crown closure classes. Type forestier
Forested tundra Subarea of the vast boreal zone characterized by a mosaic of stands of variable density and by tundra consisting mainly of shrubs and lichens. This plant formation is located at the tree line, and marks the division between the boreal zone and the arctic zone. Toundra forestière
Forestry Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. Foresterie
Forestry practices Any activity that is carried out on forest land to facilitate the use of forest resources, including, but not limited to, timber harvesting, road construction, silviculture, grazing, recreation, pest control and wildfire suppression. Pratiques forestières
Fragmentation The splitting or isolating of patches of similar habitat, typically forest cover, but including other types of habitat. Habitat can be fragmented naturally or from forest management activities, such as clearcut logging. Fragmentation
Fuel plantation syn. fuelwood plantation Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning. Plantation énergétique
Fungicide Any agent used to kill or inhibit the growth of fungi and their spores. Fongicide
Fungicide Substance used to kill fungi. Fongicide
Fungicides Products that can inhibit the growth of fungi or kill them. Fungicides are used in agriculture and industrial plantation forestry to protect plants and trees from certain fungal diseases. Fongicides
Gene flow The movement of alleles among interbreeding individuals belonging to different populations, by means of seed or pollen dispersal or the migration of individuals. Flux génique
Genotype An individual hereditary constitution derived from its parents and forming a unique combination of genes; sometimes referring to trees having similar genetic constitutions with regard to certain common, identifiable genetic characteristics. Génotype
Global Positioning System (GPS) A system of satellites and receiving devices used to compute positions on the Earth. Système de positionnement global (GPS)
Global warming The rise in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect. Réchauffement climatique
Green tree cut Harvesting that retains live trees of a specific species and size on the area to be cut to achieve a site-specific objective. Coupe avec réserves
Greenhouse gas source Any process or activity (for example, forest fires or conversion of forest land to agricultural or urban uses) that releases greenhouse gases or precursors of those gases into the atmosphere. As trees and forest products decompose or burn, they release carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. Source de gaz à effet de serre
Group method A shelterwood system in which the canopy is opened, by group cutting, so as to create fairly evenly distributed gaps which are enlarged by subsequent cuttings. Système des coupes progressives par trouées
Group planting Setting out young trees in groups. Plantation par bouquets
Group-selection method A method of regenerating and maintaining uneven-aged stands in which trees are removed in small groups. Jardinage par bouquets
Guild management A method of management by which species are assembled into groups based on similarities in their habitat requirements. One species is selected to indicate the group; conserving the habitat of that particular species ensures the conservation of other members of the guild. Gestion par association
Habitat The environment in which a population or individual lives; includes not only the place where a species is found, but also the particular characteristics of the place (for example, climate or the availability of suitable food and shelter) that make it especially well suited to meet the life cycle needs of that species. Habitat
Hard snag A snag composed primarily of sound wood, generally merchantable. Chicot dur
Hardwood(s) (broad-leaved trees) Trees whose leaves are not persistent and fall off at the end of a defined growing season or during a period of temperature or moisture stress. This is the predominant tree type in deciduous forests. Also refers to the wood produced by these trees. Feuillus (arbres à feuilles caduques)
Herbicide tolerant Capable of surviving and recovering from the application of herbicides. Tolérant aux herbicides
High forest Crops and stands of trees, generally of seedling origin, that normally develop a high closed canopy. A term originally used to differentiate the natural, essentially seedling forest of long rotation from the artificial. Futaie
High-forest systems Silvicultural systems in which the crops are normally of seedling origin, natural and/or artificial, and the rotation is, traditionally at least, long. Régime de la futaie
High-forest-with-reserves system An accessory system in which selected trees of the old crop, scattered or in groups, are retained after regeneration is completed, for the whole or a part of the next rotation. Futaie avec sur-réserves
Hole planting Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole or pit. Roots separated on either side of a wedge or saddle of earth left in situ when the hole was dug is termed saddle planting. Plantation sur potets
Humicolous Living in or on humus or leaf litter. Humicole
Humus A general term for the more or less decomposed (plant and animal) residues in the soil, litter therefore being excluded. Humus
Improvement cutting A cutting made in a stand past the sapling stage, primarily to improve composition and quality through the removal of less desirable trees of any species. Coupe d’amélioration
Industrial plantation forestry Tree cultivation using methods of intensive silviculture: plantations made up of genetically improved stock, fertilization, drainage, phytosanitary treatments, release of higher quality stems, etc. Ligniculture
Integrated landscape management (ILM) The integrated planning and assessment of land uses and human activities over whole landscapes to ensure the long-term economic, social and environmental sustainability of ecosystems and their resources. It is applied at appropriate temporal and spatial scales necessary to achieve multiple management objectives. Aménagement intégré du paysage (AIP)
Integrated pest management The use of a mix of techniques and/or strategies to control pests, as opposed to the application of a single method. Lutte intégrée contre les ravageurs
Integrated resource management A holistic approach to resource management that entails the management of two or more resources (for example, water, soil, timber, pasture, wildlife, and recreation) and that integrates the values of the community into the design of policies or projects to use and sustain these resources in perpetuity. Gestion intégrée des ressources
Intensive silviculture Application of cultural measures which, in addition to simply maintaining the forest cover, will allow an increase in the value or volume of the cut. Sylviculture intensive
Intermediate treatments Any treatment in a stand during that portion of the rotation not included in the final harvest or regeneration period. cf. tending Traitement intermédiaire
Interplanting Planting young trees among existing natural regeneration or previously planted trees of similar age. Plantation intercalaire
Inventory (forest) A survey of a forest area to determine data such as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting. Inventaire forestier
Irregular shelterwood system see shelterwood cutting Système des coupes progressives irrégulières
J-root A root, especially a seedling tap root, having a sharp bend greater than 90, shaped like a J. Frequently introduced by inappropriate planting. Racine en J
L-notch planting Special form of slit planting involving two slits at right angles with the seedling placed at the apex of the L. plantation avec fentes en L
Ladder fuels Fuels that provide vertical continuity between the surface fuels and crown fuels in a forest stand, thus contributing to the ease of torching and crowning, for example, tall shrubs, small-sized trees, bark flakes, tree lichens. Combustible étagé
Laminated beam A beam consisting of two or more layers of wood, glued, nailed or otherwise bonded together, with the grain going in the same direction. Poutre lamellée
Landscape Areas of land that are distinguished by differences in landforms, vegetation, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Paysage
Leaching Process in which soluble substances in the soil are removed by the movement of water. Lessivage
Lichen An algae and a fungus growing in symbiotic association on solid surfaces such as rocks or tree bark. Lichen
Lichen Organism consisting of a fungus (mycellium) and an alga (green alga cells) living in association. Lichens have a high tolerance for cold, drought and heat. They should not be confused with mosses, which are chlorophyll-containing plants. Lichens
Lifting the canopy Removing the lower constituents of a canopy, e.g., the lowest undergrowth, shrubs, and small trees in a multistoried forest, mainly to assist the main crop, particularly for regeneration, but also for readier access. Élagage de dégagement
Litter Uppermost layer of organic debris on a forest floor. Litière
Main crop In regular crops or stands, that portion of the growing stock retained after an intermediate cutting. Peuplement principal
Management plan A predetermined course of action and direction to achieve a set of results, usually specified as goals, objectives and policies. Plan d'aménagement
Marking rule Means of standardizing marking practice among individuals and for various areas of the same forest type, commonly for thinning purposes. Règle de marquage
Mechanical planting Setting out young trees by means of a machine specially designed for this operation. Plantation mécanique
Medium density fibreboard (MDF) A wood-based composite material that uses wood fibre rather than particles, strands or veneers to produce board or sheet products. It is made by combining wood fibre with a synthetic resin or other bonding system and applying pressure and heat to create a compressed fibreboard with a density ranging from 0.60 to 0.80 g/cm3. MDF is increasingly used in areas such as furniture manufacture, cabinetry, joinery, shelving, craftwork and flooring. Panneau de fibres à densité moyenne (MDF)
Merchantable Of a tree or stand that has attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Does not imply accessibility, economic or otherwise. Marchand
Merchantable snag A snag that is of sufficient quality and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Chicot marchand
Microfauna Soil-dwelling micro-organisms (animals) that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Synonym: soil fauna. Microfaune
Microsite The ultimate unit of the habitat, i.e., the specific spot occupied by an individual organism. By extension, the more or less specialized relationships existing between an organism and its environment. Niche (écologique)
Mixed stand A stand composed of two or more species in which less than 80% of trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species. The threshold in Manitoba and New Brunswick is 75%. cf. pure stand Mélangé
Mixedwoods Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae that are substantially intermingled in stands. Peuplement mixte
Model forest A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis. Forêt modèle
Montréal Criteria and Indicators Process This global initiative was so named because the first meeting sponsored by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe was held in Montreal. Currently, 12 countries representing 90% of the world's boreal and temperate forests have agreed to collaborate to develop national C&I for the conservation and sustainable management of all boreal and temperate forests. Processus de Montréal sur les critères et les indicateurs
Mop-up (fire) The act of extinguishing a fire after it has been brought under control. Extinction (feu)
Mortality Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting. Mortalité
Mound planting Setting out young trees on raised microsites. Plantation sur butte
Multiple forest use A system of resource use where the forest resources in a given land unit serve more than one user. Utilisation intégrée de la forêt
National forest strategy An overarching national vision and framework for Canada’s forests developed by the Council of Canadian Forest Ministers. The first strategy appeared in 1981. Stratégie nationale sur la forêt
Natural regeneration Renewal of a tree crop by natural seeding, sprouting, suckering, or layering. Régénération naturelle
Nest planting Setting out a number of seedlings or seeds close together in a prepared hole, pit, or spot. Plantation en nids
New forestry A forest management philosophy that attempts to retain characteristics of old-growth stands in managed stands. Nouvelle foresterie
Niche environment The unique environment used to sustain the existence of an organism or species. Niche écologique
Nodule Globulose or elongated mass formed by certain fungi or a mixture of plant and fungal tissues. Nodule
Non-commercial tree species A tree species for which there is currently no market. Essence forestière non commerciale
Non-timber forest products Any commodity obtained from the forest that does not necessitate harvesting trees. It includes game animals, fur-bearers, nuts and seeds, berries, mushrooms, oils, foliage, medicinal plants, peat, fuelwood, forage, etc. Produit forestier non ligneux (PFNL)
Non-timber value A value within the forest other than timber that includes, but is not limited to, biological diversity, fisheries, wildlife, minerals, water quality and quantity, recreation and tourism, cultural heritage values, and wilderness and aesthetic values. Valeurs non ligneuses
Nursery An area set aside for the raising of young trees mainly for planting out. Temporary nurseries, particularly those formed beneath a high canopy of large trees, may be termed bush nurseries. cf. field nursery Pépinière
Nursery bed One of the specially prepared plots in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put. Planche
Nutrients Mineral or organic substances (elements or chemical compounds) that plants and animals require for normal growth and activity. Plants and trees obtain nutrients primarily from the soil by absorbing them through their roots. Nutriments
Old growth A stand of mature or overmature trees relatively uninfluenced by human activity. Première venue, de
Old-growth forest An old growth forest differs significantly from younger stands in structure, ecological function and species composition with respect to canopy closure, age class structure, accumulation of woody debris and the presence of species and functional processes that are representative of the potential natural community. Forêt anciennne / vieille forêt
Oriented strandboard (OSB) A panel made from wood strands oriented in the face layers and normally cross-oriented in the core layer, combined under heat and pressure with a water-resistant binder. Orienting the strands greatly increases the bending stiffness and strength of the panels. Panneau de particules orientées
Overmature In even-aged management, those trees or stands past the mature stage. Suranné
Overstorey The uppermost continuous layer of a vegetation cover, for example the tree canopy in a forest ecosystem or the uppermost layer of a shrub stand. Étage dominant
Partial cutting Removal of only part of a stand for purposes other than regenerating a new age class. Coupe partielle
Partial harvest Any cutting in which only part of the stand is harvested. Coupe partielle
Particle (wood) A small element produced mechanically from wood. Particles can be further subdivided based on their geometry into categories or types such as chips, flakes, shavings, sawdust and slivers. Particle dimensions are typically 25 mm or less along the grain direction and of varying widths and thicknesses. Particules de bois
Particleboard A panel made from wood particles, which are often the residue from other wood processing operations, combined under heat and pressure with a water-resistant binder. It differs from fibreboard in that the wood particles are larger than fibres. Panneau de particules
Patch cutting A silvicultural system that creates openings less than one hectare in size and is designed to manage each opening as a distinct even-aged opening. Coupe par trouées
Patch logging A modification of the clearcutting system developed in the Pacific Coast region of North America, whereby patches of about 5 to 200 ha are logged as single units, separated for as long as practicable. Exploitation par blocs
Pathogen A microscopic organism or virus directly capable of causing disease. see thinning: precommercial. Pathogène
Pathogenic A parasitic organism directly capable of causing disease. Pathogène
Pathology Study of diseases and the effects they have on plants. Pathologie
Pathology The study of disease. Pathologie
Pedology Scientific discipline that is concerned with all aspects of soils. Pédologie
Periodic block The part(s) of forest allocated for regeneration (the regeneration block) or other treatment during a specified period. (3) Affectation de régénération
Permafrost A perennially frozen soil horizon. Pergélisol
Permafrost Permanently frozen ground comprised of an active layer of soil overlying a layer of ice that varies in thickness. Permafrost is completely impervious to water because it does not thaw, although the active layer does thaw seasonally. Pergélisol
Persistent foliage Characteristic of evergreen trees, that is, trees that do not shed their leaves in the fall. Feuillage persistant
Pest Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs. Ravageur
Pesticide Any preparation used to control populations of injurious organisms, plant or animal. Pesticide
Piedmont The area of foothills at the edge of a range of mountains, which represents the transition between mountain and plain. The Foothills of Alberta are an example of a piedmont. Piedmont (ou piémont)
Piling Slash disposal whereby coarse woody debris are gathered into windrows or isolated piles. Mise en andain
Pioneer species Species that are the first to colonize a new site or a new ecosystem. They are generally shade intolerant and need a lot of sunlight in order to grow. Poplars and birches are pioneer species. Espèce pionnière
Pit planting Setting out young trees in small depressions, natural or excavated, with a view to collecting and conserving moisture. Plantation sur trous
Plantation forest Forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation which are either of introduced species (all planted stands) or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing. Plantation forestière
Plantation forestry Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand. Foresterie de plantation
Planting Establishing a forest by setting out seedlings, transplants, or cuttings in an area. Plantation
Plus stand A stand containing a preponderance of good phenotypes, but not necessarily plus trees. Peuplement plus
Pocket of infection Area in a stand or plantation where a disease originated. Foyers d'infection
Pollarding Cutting back the crown of a tree (removal of dead, diseased or unwanted branches). Émondage
Population A group that includes all possible members of a species in a territory at a given time. Population
Pot planting Setting out young trees in pot-shaped receptacles having a closed or only perforated end and made of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en pot
Pre-commercial thinning Cutting in an immature crop or stand to improve crop spacing and to accelerate the diameter increment of favoured trees, and/or improve the average form of the trees that remain. Does not yield trees of commercial value. Éclaircie précommerciale
Precommercial thinning Silvicultural treatment that consists in freeing trees that have good growth potential from competition by cutting the lower quality stems that are competing with them. Éclaircie précommerciale
Preparatory cutting Removing trees near the end of a rotation so as to permanently open the canopy and enlarge the crowns of seed bearers, with a view to improving conditions for seed production and natural regeneration, as typically in shelterwood systems. Coupe préparatoire
Productivity The rate of production of wood of given specifications, by volume or weight, for a given area. cf. site capability Productivité
Protected area A geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives. Zone / aire protégée
Protection forest All forest land managed primarily to exert beneficial influence on soil, water, landscape, or for any other purpose when production of merchantable timber, if any, is incidental. Forêt de protection
Protozoa Single-celled animal-like microorganisms whose cells have a nucleus. Protozoa play an important role in the ecology of aquatic and soil environments, where they are omnipresent. Protozoaire
Pruning Removal of branches from a tree, particularly beneath the crown. Élagage
Pruning 1. The removal of live branches from standing trees, termed green pruning; or of dead branches, dry pruning. 2. Removal of live or dead branches from ground level to as high as a person's reach (2.0-2.5 m) in a young stand. Élagage
Pulp Wood chips that have been ground mechanically into fibres and are used for the production of inexpensive paper, such as newsprint, or that have been chemically treated to remove the lignin and are used to manufacture higher quality papers. Pâte
Quadrat A small, clearly demarcated sample area of known size on which observations are made. Quadrat
Quincunx planting Setting out four young trees to form the corners of a square with a fifth tree at its center. Plantation en quinconces
Regeneration Renewal of a forest crop by natural, artificial, or vegetative (regrowth) means. Also the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high. Régénération
Regeneration cut Any removal of trees intended to assist regeneration already present or to make regeneration possible. Coupe de régénération
Research and development (R&D) Set of activities directed toward improving and innovating products and processes from a technological point of view and not from a commercial point of view. Encompasses basic research, applied research and development. Recherche et développement (R-D)
Reserve cutting See seed-tree method. Coupe à blanc avec réserves
Resilience The capacity of a community or ecosystem to maintain or regain normal function and development following disturbance. Résilience
Resinous See conifer. Résineux
Retention harvesting A silvicultural system designed to retain individual trees or groups of trees to maintain structural diversity over the area of the cutblock. Coupe à rétention variable
Ridge planting Setting out young trees on a long, narrow crest of excavated soil, generally on a slice thrown up by a plough. Plantation sur bourrelet
Riparian forest buffer A strip of forested land of variable width adjacent to a flowing body of fresh water, which it influences and is affected by. Prone to flooding, a riparian forest buffer can be integrated into an agroforestry system and help counter stream bank erosion, protect water quality, and regularize water flow. Bande riveraine
Riparian zone A strip of land of variable width adjacent to and influenced by a body of fresh water. Zone riveraine
Root Part of the tree that anchors it and absorbs nutrients from the soil. Racine
Root pruning The act of reducing one or more roots considered to be superfluous, usually at some stage before outplanting, in order to improve the shape and size of a root system. Élagage des racines
Root rot Decomposition of the woody tissue in roots causing the death of the cambium or bark of the roots, thus girdling the trees at the root collar and causing their death. Pourridié
Root-to-shoot ratio The total mass or volume of the plant root system divided by the total mass or volume of the shoot system, usually on an oven-dry basis. Rapport système racinaire/système foliacé
Rust Disease caused by a fungus that is parasitic on higher plants and may go through five different developmental stages, usually involving hosts. Following infection, orange pustules appear, possibly followed by premature shedding of foliage, witches' brooms or cankers. Rouille
Rutting The resulting depressions in the soil due to the repeated passage of a logging machine’s wheels at the same place. Orniérage
Salvage cutting The exploitation of trees that are dead, dying, or deteriorating (e.g., because overmature or materially damaged by fire, wind, insects, fungi, or other injurious agencies) before their timber becomes economically worthless. Coupe de récupération
Salvage harvesting The removal—after the main logging—of the rest of the timber, with a view to supplying a different class of product. Coupe de récupération
Sanitation cutting The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees, essentially to prevent the spread of pests or pathogens and so promote forest hygiene. Coupe d’assainissement
Sapling A general term for a young tree no longer a seedling but not yet a pole, about 1-2 m high and 2-4 cm in dbh, typically growing vigorously and without dead bark or more than an occasional dead branch. Gaule
Science (forest) The study of the material universe or physical reality in order to understand it. This is done by making observations and collecting data about natural events and conditions, then organizing and explaining them with hypotheses, theories, models, laws and principles. Science forestière
Science and technology (S&T) Systematic activities that are closely concerned with the generation, advancement, dissemination and application of scientific and technical knowledge in all fields of science and technology, including such activities as research and development (R&D), scientific and technical education and training, and scientific and technological services. Sciences et technologie (S et T)
Second growth The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest. Seconde venue, de
Second growth forest The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest. Forêt de seconde venue
Secondary succession Process whereby one stand or plant community supplants another; it is triggered by a major disturbance in a forest ecosystem. Successions secondaires
Seed collection area A forest stand that exhibits good characteristics of growth, form, and vigor and that is not managed for cone production, but from which seed is collected, usually at the time of harvest. Zone de récolte de semences
Seed cutting Removing trees in a mature stand so as to effect permanent opening of its canopy (if there was no preparatory cutting to do this) and so provide conditions for securing regeneration from the seed of trees retained for that purpose. Coupe d’ensemencement
Seed orchard A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, etc. Verger à graines
Seed-tree method A method of regenerating a forest stand in which all trees are removed from the area except for a small number of seed-bearing trees that are left singly or in small groups. Mode de régénération par coupe avec réserve de semenciers
Selection cutting Annual or periodic cutting of trees chosen individually or by groups, in an uneven-aged stand, in order to recover the yield and develop a balanced uneven-aged stand structure, while providing the cultural measures required for tree growth. Coupe de jardinage
Selection method A method of regenerating a forest stand and maintaining an uneven-aged structure by removing some trees in all size classes either singly or in small groups or strips. Jardinage
Shelterwood cutting Any regeneration cutting in a more or less regular and mature crop, designed to establish a new crop under the protection (overhead or side) of the old, or where the resultant crop will be more or less regular. Coupes progressives
Shoot pruning Cutting away undesirable shoots to favor survival and growth of selected shoots. Élagage des rejets
Shortwood harvesting Felling and cross-cutting on the spot, i.e. transporting the logs from the cutting, not the whole bole or tree. Exploitation en bois courts
Silvics The study of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands, with particular reference to locality factors as a basis of silviculture. Écologie forestière
Silvicultural regime A series of stand tending (thinning, pruning, etc.) treatments applied after regeneration to achieve a specific stand management objective. Traitement sylvicole
Silvicultural system A process that applies silvicultural practices, including tending (thinning, pruning, etc.), harvesting, and replacement, to a stand in order to produce a crop of timber and other forest products. Note: the system is named by the cutting Régime sylvicole
Silviculture Practices aimed at ensuring wise harvesting of forest resources : conservation, regeneration, reforestation, cutting, etc. Sylviculture
Silviculture The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands to achieve the objectives of management. Sylviculture
Single tree selection A method of regenerating uneven-aged stands in which individual trees are removed more or less uniformly throughout the stand. Jardinage par arbre
Site A land area based on its climatic, physiographic, edaphic, and biotic factors that determine its suitability and productivity for particular species and silvicultural alternatives. Site
Site capability The mean annual increment in merchantable volume which can be expected for a forest area, assuming it is fully stocked by one or more species best adapted to the site, at or near rotation age. Expressed in cubic metres per he Potentiel de station
Site index An expression of forest site quality based on the height, at a specified age, of dominant and codominant trees in a stand. May be grouped into site classes. Expressed in metres. Usually refers to a particular species. Indice de station
Site quality The productive capacity of a site; usually expressed as volume production of a given species per unit area (cubic metres per hectare) or per unit of time (cubic metres per year). Qualité de station
Skidder A self-propelled logging machine with an articulated frame, used for hauling operations. Débardeur
Slash The residue left on the ground after felling and tending and/or accumulating there as a result of storm, fire, girdling, or treatment with herbicide. It includes unutilized logs, uprooted stumps, broken or uprooted stems. Rémanents
Slit planting Prying open a cut made by a spade, mattock, or planting bar (termed bar planting), inserting a young tree, then closing the cut on the latter by pressure. Plantation en fente
Smouldering fire A fire burning without flame and barely spreading. Feu couvant
Snag A standing dead tree from which the leaves and most of the branches have fallen. Chicot
Soft snag A snag composed primarily of wood in advanced stages of decay and deterioration, particularly in the sapwood portion. Chicot pourri
Specialty wood product Any forest commodity made of wood and not intended for the high-volume conventional forest sector, thus excluding lumber, fibreboard, and pulp and paper. Examples include carvings, canoes, snowshoes, bowls, utensils, toys, jewellery, decorative boxes, and musical instruments. Specialty wood products often enhance the value of residual wood from forest harvesting (for example, tree stumps, knotted trees, and blue-stained wood attacked by the mountain pine beetle) or of shrub and tree species with a unique wood grain pattern (for example, bird’s eye maple). Produit du bois spécialisé
SPF (spruce-pine-fir) Canadian woods of similar characteristics that are grouped as one lumber type for production and marketing purposes. EPS (épinette-pin-sapin)
Spot planting Setting out young trees in small, prepared patches. Plantation sur placeaux
Stand A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas, thus forming a silvicultural or management entity. Peuplement
Stand model A mathematical model that forecasts the development of a forest stand, usually in terms of mean stand attributes, e.g., mean diameter, height. Modèle de peuplement
Stand table A summary table showing the number of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. The data may also be presented in the form of a frequency distribution of diameter classes. Table de peuplement
Stewardship The science, art and skill of responsible and accountable management of resources. Intendance
Stock table A summary table showing the volume of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. Table de stock
Stocked forest land Land supporting tree growth. In this context, tree growth includes seedlings and saplings. Terrain forestier boisé
Stocked quadrat In regeneration surveys, a quadrat having at least one live tree seedling or regrowth. The criteria for what constitutes a "stocked" area vary with species, site, country, etc. Parcelle régénérée
Storied high forest A crop of trees in which the canopy can be differentiated into one or more layers, the dominant species in natural forest generally differing in each layer. Futaie pluriétagée
Story A horizontal stratum or layer in a plant community; in forests, appearing as one or more canopies. A forest having more than two stories is called multistoried. A forest having one story (the main story) is called single-storied. Étage
Strand (wood) A specialized knife-cut wood flake of controlled thickness and a length along the grain orientation of at least twice and usually many times its width. Copeau long
Strip cropping Crop planting in which strips of heavy-rooted plants are alternated with loose-rooted plants which serve as barriers to wind and water erosion. Plantation en lisières
Strip cutting Removal of the crop in strips in more than one operations, generally for encouraging natural regeneration or protecting fragile sites. Considered to be a variation of clearcutting. Coupe par bandes
Strip planting Setting trees, generally in two or more parallel lines, in a long narrow area of land that has been wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en bandes
Stub The broken or cut base of a branch projecting from a tree stem. Chicot
Stumpage fee The fee paid by an individual or company for the timber they harvest from public forests or privately owned forest land. Droit de coupe
Succession The gradual supplanting of one community of plants by another, the sequence of communities being termed a sere and each stage seral. Succession
Sustainable forest management Management that maintains and enhances the long-term health of forest ecosystems for the benefit of all living things while providing environmental, economic, social and cultural opportunities for present and future generations. Aménagement forestier durable
Sustainable forestry Management of forested area in order to provide wood products in perpetuity, soil and watershed integrity, persistence of most native species and maintenance of highly sensitive species or suitable conditions. Foresterie durable
Sustainable Forestry Initiative A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality. Sustainable Forestry Initiative
Sustained yield The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management. Rendement soutenu
T-notching see slit planting Bêchage en T
Taiga Subarea of the extensive boreal zone characterized by open coniferous forest with lichens. Taïga
Tall oil An oily liquid by-product of the so-called “kraft” pulping process (particularly of pine wood), composed of a mixture of rosins, fatty acids, and other substances. Soaps, emulsifiers, adhesives, and lubricants are only a few of the many value-added bioproducts that can be made from recovered tall oil. Résine liquide
Taungya plantation The raising of a forest crop in conjunction with a temporary agricultural crop. Plantation en taungya
Tending Generally, any operation carried out for the benefit of a forest crop or an individual thereof, at any stage of its life; covers operations both on the crop itself, e.g., thinnings and improvement cuttings, and on competing vegetation. Soins culturaux
Tending felling An operation comprising cleanings and thinnings. Coupe d’entretien
Thicket A dense growth of small trees or bushes. Fourré
Thinning A partial cutting or spacing operation made in an immature forest stand to accelerate the growth of the remaining trees. Éclaircie
Tree farm Privately owned woodland in which the production of wood fibre is a primary management goal, as distinct from a tree nursery, fruit orchard, or landscape business. Propriété forestière de production
Trench planting Setting out young trees in a shallow trench or a continuous slit. Plantation en sillon
Tube planting Setting out young trees in narrow, open-ended cylinders of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or into which they have been transplanted. Plantation de semis en tube
Underplanting Planting young trees under the canopy of an existing stand. Plantation en sous-étage
Understorey The lower level of vegetation in a forest. Usually formed by ground vegetation (mosses, herbs and lichens), herbs and shrubs. Sous-étage
Uneven-aged system A silvicultural system in which stands have an uneven-aged structure. Régime inéquienne
Unmerchantable Of a tree or stand that has not attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Non marchand
Value-added product A product that has had value added to it through further processing. Examples include windows, doors, kitchen cabinets, flooring and mouldings. Value-added pulp and paper products include items such as packaging, diapers, coated papers, tissue, business papers, stationery and other consumer paper products. Produit à valeur ajoutée
Variable-retention A silvicultural system that follows nature’s model by always retaining part of the forest after harvesting. Standing trees are left in a dispersed or aggregated form to meet objectives such as retaining old-growth structure, habitat protection and visual quality. Variable retention retains structural features (snags, large woody debris, live trees of varying sizes, canopy levels) as wildlife habitat. Rétention variable
Vertical diversity The diversity in a stand that results from the complexity of the above-ground structure of the vegetation. Diversité verticale
Virgin forest Natural forest, the development of which has been virtually uninfluenced by modern human activity. Forêt vierge
Volunteer growth Natural regeneration following site preparation and seeding or planting that could either supplement or completely obscure the trees being planted or seeded on the area. Régénération subséquente
Water bombing The act of dropping suppressants (water or short-term retardant) on a wildfire from an aircraft in flight. Arrosage aérien
Wedge system A modification of the strip shelterwood system in which cuttings begin as narrow, interior, wedge-shaped strips with the apex into the prevailing wind, and are then successively enlarged and advanced; regeneration is mainly natural. Mode de régénération par coupes progressives en coin
Weed tree Any tree of a species having little or no economic value on the site in question. Indésirable
Wilt Drying out, loss of colour and shape of leaves, then twigs and branches, caused by a lack of water or the presence of toxins. Flétrissement
Windfall 1. A tree or trees thrown down or with their stems broken off or other parts blown down by the wind. 2. Any area on which the trees have been thrown down or broken by the wind. Chablis
Windrow planting Planting between the two lanes created in windrowing. Plantation sur entrandain
Working group An aggregate of forest stands, or forest stand and forest sites, which are grouped for the purpose of applying a common set of silvicultural treatments (also called operational group). Section d’aménagement
Yield table Tables and graphs illustrating volumes per hectare of stands at a specific age. normal yield table [table de rendement normal]: Estimated stand volume per age class at normal stocking. Table de rendement
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