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Economy

Term Definition French
Agroforestry The deliberate integration, in space or time, of woody perennials with herbaceous crops and/or animals on the same land management unit. Agroforesterie
Allowable cut The volume of wood that may be harvested, under management, for a given period. Possibilité de coupe
Arboriculture The cultivation, that is, growing and tending, of trees and shrubs, individually or in small groups, generally for ornament, protection, and instruction rather than direct use or profit. Arboriculture
Balance of trade The difference between the value of the goods and services that a country exports and the value of the goods and services that it imports. If a country’s exports exceed its imports, it has a trade surplus; if imports exceed exports, the country has a trade deficit. Balance commerciale
Basic forest management Extensive forest management plus artificial regeneration where necessary. cf. extensive forest management Aménagement forestier de base
Bio-based economy See bioeconomy. Bio-based economy
Bioeconomy An economy based on the manufacturing and trade of commodities and services derived from renewable biological resources as well as on the trade of non-timber forest products. Bioéconomie
Bioenergy The kinetic energy released from biomass when it is eaten, burned or converted into fuel, or the potential energy embodied in biomass. Bioénergie
Biogas A combustible gas and type of biofuel produced by the decomposition of biological materials (for example, forestry residues and municipal waste) through anaerobic digestion (that is, in the absence of oxygen) or fermentation. Typical biogas consists of 50 to 60% methane and carbon dioxide. Biogaz
Biomass The total mass of living organisms of one or more species per unit of area, or all the species in a community. It can be divided into above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass. Biomasse
Biomass The organic matter (cellulose and lignin) produced by plants. The term forest biomass generally refers to all of the material contained in the trees of a forest, including all their components (roots, branches, leaves, etc.). Biomasse
Bioprocess A process that uses the processing capability of living cells (for example, yeasts) or their components (for example, enzymes) to create a commercially useful product. Bioprocédé
Canadian Council of Forest Ministers A forum for the federal, provincial and territorial governments to work cooperatively, through their respective ministers, in addressing major areas of common interest concerning Canada’s forests. The Canadian Forest Service of Natural Resources Canada serves as the council’s secretariat. Conseil canadien des ministres des forêts
Capital and repair expenditures Capital expenditures include the cost of procuring, constructing and installing new durable plants, machinery or equipment, whether for replacement of worn or obsolete assets, as additions to existing assets or for lease or rent to others. Repair expenditures include costs to repair and maintain structures, machinery and equipment. Dépenses en immobilisations et réparations
Carbon footprint The total direct greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions produced by a facility to manufacture a range of products or an individual product. Empreinte carbone
Certification (forest) Forest certification is a market-based instrument aimed at promoting sustainable forest management that takes into account environmental, economic and social issues. It involves the independent assessment of forest management according to internationally (or nationally) accepted standards, and the tracking and monitoring of the supply of forest products to the market place. If the forest management is in compliance with a set of specified standards, and the timber from this forest has been tracked and accounted for through all stages of the production process, then it can be given a label which is recognized in the market place. Certification forestière
Chain of custody The process of monitoring the production and distribution of goods from the forest to the end-product, i.e., tracing the origin of the product. Continuité de possession
Clear wood Knot-free wood formed subsequent to pruning. Bois sans défaut
Compatible management The management of forest lands using strategies and practices that increase the productivity of both timber and non-timber resources. Aménagement compatible
Containerboard Component materials used in the manufacture of shipping containers and other corrugated board products. Carton caisse
Cull Trees or logs or portions thereof that are of merchantable size but are rendered unmerchantable by defects. In nursery practice, a seedling that does not match the grade or specifications. Rebut
Deforestation Permanent removal of forest cover and withdrawal of land from forest use, whether deliberately or circumstantially. Déboisement
Direct employment Persons employed directly in the following industries: forestry and logging (includes timber tract operations, nurseries and logging), industries involved in support activities for forestry (for example, fire prevention/fighting, reforestation, pest control), and paper manufacturing and wood product manufacturing (includes production of lumber and other wood products). Emploi direct
Ecolabeling Process used to determine when a product can display a special seal or mark signifying that it is less harmful to the environment than most other similar products. The two-steps are: establishment of criteria, and certification that a product meets the criteria. Écoétiquetage
Ecosystem The sum of the plants, animals, environmental influences, and their interactions within a particular habitat. Écosystème
Ecotourism A type of tourism that focuses on nature-related experiences (for example, bird watching). Écotourisme
Falldown A situation in which second-growth forests provide less timber than the original forests. Exploitation secondaire
Fibre (wood) A material in which the wood is reduced to predominantly individual fibres by mechanical or chemical means, or a combination of the two. Virgin fibre is derived from trees not previously processed into paper; recycled fibre has been reclaimed from a previous product such as old newsprint and reprocessed and incorporated into a new product. Fibre (ligneuse)
Forest Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern. Forêt
Forest Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. Forêt
Forest biorefinery A plant that uses renewable forest feedstocks (for example, harvest residues, effluent extracts, and black liquors) to integrate the production of conventional forest products with that of value-added bioproducts and bioenergy. A forest biorefinery aims at maximizing the feedstocks’ value by recovering all of the intermediate and end products, hence yielding minimum waste and pollution. Bioraffinerie forestière
Forest management That branch of forestry concerned with the overall administrative, economic, legal and social aspects and with the essentially scientific and technical aspects, especially silviculture, protection and forest regulation. Aménagement forestier
Forest sector The forest sector includes governments, conservation and environmental groups, woodlot owners, Aboriginals, urban forestry interests, lumber and pulp and paper producers and value-added industries, forest-reliant communities, the recreation and tourism industries, and other sectors of the economy (including the energy, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries) that derive wealth and well-being from forest resources. Secteur forestier
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) An international certification and labelling system under which forests are certified against strict environmental and social standards, and fibre from certified forests is tracked from the forest to consumers. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Forest-dependent community A community that depends on a forest region for at least 50 percent of its total economy. Collectivité dépendante de la forêt
Forestry Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. Foresterie
Fuel plantation syn. fuelwood plantation Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning. Plantation énergétique
Fuelwood Trees used for the production of firewood logs or other wood fuel. Bois de chauffage
Genotype An individual hereditary constitution derived from its parents and forming a unique combination of genes; sometimes referring to trees having similar genetic constitutions with regard to certain common, identifiable genetic characteristics. Génotype
Gross domestic product (GDP) The total value of all goods and services produced within Canada during a given year. Produit intérieur brut (PIB)
Growing stock All the trees growing in a forest or in a specified part of it, generally expressed in terms of number or volume. Matériel sur pied
Integrated landscape management (ILM) The integrated planning and assessment of land uses and human activities over whole landscapes to ensure the long-term economic, social and environmental sustainability of ecosystems and their resources. It is applied at appropriate temporal and spatial scales necessary to achieve multiple management objectives. Aménagement intégré du paysage (AIP)
Intercropping An agroforestry system involving the cultivation of agricultural crops or forest-derived crops that require full sun between rows (or other arrangements) of trees or shrubs. (See also sun system.) Culture intercalaire
Laminated beam A beam consisting of two or more layers of wood, glued, nailed or otherwise bonded together, with the grain going in the same direction. Poutre lamellée
Light framing lumber Lumber that is 5 to 10 cm thick and 5 to 10 cm wide. It is used in a large variety of general construction applications. Bois à charpente légère
Logging damage General term comprising wounds resulting from cutting, breakage, or crushing of trees that resulted from the felling and the removal of trees designated for cutting. May also include scoring of site and soil leading to exposure Dommage de coupe
Lumber Wood processed in a sawmill. Bois d'œuvre
Medium density fibreboard (MDF) A wood-based composite material that uses wood fibre rather than particles, strands or veneers to produce board or sheet products. It is made by combining wood fibre with a synthetic resin or other bonding system and applying pressure and heat to create a compressed fibreboard with a density ranging from 0.60 to 0.80 g/cm3. MDF is increasingly used in areas such as furniture manufacture, cabinetry, joinery, shelving, craftwork and flooring. Panneau de fibres à densité moyenne (MDF)
Merchantable Of a tree or stand that has attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Does not imply accessibility, economic or otherwise. Marchand
Model forest A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis. Forêt modèle
Mortality Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting. Mortalité
Mushroom Visible reproductive part of any of various fungi. Champignon de sol
Nanocrystalline cellulose Nano structures made from pure cellulose used in coating, papermaking, drug delivery, biocide dispersion, composite products, etc. Cellulose nanocristalline
National forest strategy An overarching national vision and framework for Canada’s forests developed by the Council of Canadian Forest Ministers. The first strategy appeared in 1981. Stratégie nationale sur la forêt
New investments All expenditures made on buildings, engineering, construction, machinery and equipment (including imports of used machinery and equipment) for the current time period. Investment in buildings includes transfer costs on the sale of existing assets (for example, real estate commissions). Nouveaux investissements
Non-commercial tree species A tree species for which there is currently no market. Essence forestière non commerciale
Non-tariff barrier An economic, political, administrative or legal impediment to trade other than a duty, tax or import quota. Barrières non tarifaires
Oriented strandboard (OSB) A panel made from wood strands oriented in the face layers and normally cross-oriented in the core layer, combined under heat and pressure with a water-resistant binder. Orienting the strands greatly increases the bending stiffness and strength of the panels. Panneau de particules orientées
Particleboard A panel made from wood particles, which are often the residue from other wood processing operations, combined under heat and pressure with a water-resistant binder. It differs from fibreboard in that the wood particles are larger than fibres. Panneau de particules
Plantation forestry Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand. Foresterie de plantation
Roundwood Sections of tree stems, with or without bark. May include logs, bolts, posts and pilings. Bois ronds
Sawtimber Trees that will yield logs suitable in size and quality for the production of lumber. Bois de sciage
Silvipasture An agroforestry system where trees and livestock are produced together. Système sylvopastoral
Silvopasture An agroforestry practice involving the compatible combination of tree growing with forage and livestock production in order to maximize both ecological and economic benefits. Sylvopastoralisme
Specialty wood product Any forest commodity made of wood and not intended for the high-volume conventional forest sector, thus excluding lumber, fibreboard, and pulp and paper. Examples include carvings, canoes, snowshoes, bowls, utensils, toys, jewellery, decorative boxes, and musical instruments. Specialty wood products often enhance the value of residual wood from forest harvesting (for example, tree stumps, knotted trees, and blue-stained wood attacked by the mountain pine beetle) or of shrub and tree species with a unique wood grain pattern (for example, bird’s eye maple). Produit du bois spécialisé
SPF (spruce-pine-fir) Canadian woods of similar characteristics that are grouped as one lumber type for production and marketing purposes. EPS (épinette-pin-sapin)
Stock table A summary table showing the volume of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. Table de stock
Structural lumber Wood suitable for framing and load-bearing structures essentially by virtue of its strength. Bois de charpente
Stumpage fee The fee paid by an individual or company for the timber they harvest from public forests or privately owned forest land. Droit de coupe
Sustainability The capacity of forests, ranging from stands to ecoregions, to maintain their health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity, in the long run, in the context of human activity and use. The concept of producing a biological resource under management practices that ensure replacement of the part harvested, by regrowth or reproduction, before another harvest occurs. Durabilité
Sustainable forest management Management that maintains and enhances the long-term health of forest ecosystems for the benefit of all living things while providing environmental, economic, social and cultural opportunities for present and future generations. Aménagement forestier durable
Sustained yield The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management. Rendement soutenu
Tariff An import tax or a list of articles and the import tax that must be paid on items on that list. A protective tariff is meant to protect local businesses from foreign competition; a retaliatory tariff is in response to a foreign country's tax on goods from your country; and an antidumping tariff is to prevent foreign countries from selling their goods in the importing country at a lower price than the goods sell for the foreign country or at a price lower than the manufacturing cost. Tarif
Treaty A legally binding agreement, often between two parties. Traité
Tree farm Privately owned woodland in which the production of wood fibre is a primary management goal, as distinct from a tree nursery, fruit orchard, or landscape business. Propriété forestière de production
Unmerchantable Of a tree or stand that has not attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Non marchand
Value-added product A product that has had value added to it through further processing. Examples include windows, doors, kitchen cabinets, flooring and mouldings. Value-added pulp and paper products include items such as packaging, diapers, coated papers, tissue, business papers, stationery and other consumer paper products. Produit à valeur ajoutée
Weed tree Any tree of a species having little or no economic value on the site in question. Indésirable
Yield table Tables and graphs illustrating volumes per hectare of stands at a specific age. normal yield table [table de rendement normal]: Estimated stand volume per age class at normal stocking. Table de rendement
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