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Term Definition French
Aboriginal land Lands within Aboriginal reserves or Aboriginal settlements. Terres autochtones
Aboriginal peoples The descendants of the original inhabitants of North America. The Canadian Constitution recognizes three groups of Aboriginal people—Indians, Métis and Inuit. These are three separate peoples with unique heritages, languages, cultural practices and spiritual beliefs. Peuples autochtones
Aboriginal rights Rights that some Aboriginal peoples of Canada hold as a result of their ancestors’ long-standing use and occupancy of the land. The rights of certain Aboriginal peoples to hunt trap and fish on ancestral lands are examples of Aboriginal rights. Aboriginal rights will vary from group to group depending on the customs, practices and traditions that have formed part of their distinctive cultures. Droits des Autochtones
Aboriginal title A legal term that recognizes the interest of Aboriginals in the land. It is based on their long-standing use and occupancy of the land as descendants of the original inhabitants of Canada. Titre ancestral
Agroforestry The deliberate integration, in space or time, of woody perennials with herbaceous crops and/or animals on the same land management unit. Agroforesterie
Anthropogenic emission Emission caused by human activities (for example, burning fossil fuels or setting fires to clear forest land for agricultural purposes). Émission anthropique
Biogas A combustible gas and type of biofuel produced by the decomposition of biological materials (for example, forestry residues and municipal waste) through anaerobic digestion (that is, in the absence of oxygen) or fermentation. Typical biogas consists of 50 to 60% methane and carbon dioxide. Biogaz
Canadian Council of Forest Ministers A forum for the federal, provincial and territorial governments to work cooperatively, through their respective ministers, in addressing major areas of common interest concerning Canada’s forests. The Canadian Forest Service of Natural Resources Canada serves as the council’s secretariat. Conseil canadien des ministres des forêts
Canadian Standards Association (CSA) A leading developer of standards and codes, including an internationally recognized forestry certification system. The CSA is a not-for-profit, membership-based association. Association canadienne de normalisation (CSA)
Carbon footprint The total direct greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions produced by a facility to manufacture a range of products or an individual product. Empreinte carbone
Certification (forest) Forest certification is a market-based instrument aimed at promoting sustainable forest management that takes into account environmental, economic and social issues. It involves the independent assessment of forest management according to internationally (or nationally) accepted standards, and the tracking and monitoring of the supply of forest products to the market place. If the forest management is in compliance with a set of specified standards, and the timber from this forest has been tracked and accounted for through all stages of the production process, then it can be given a label which is recognized in the market place. Certification forestière
Climate change An alteration in measured quantities (for example, precipitation, temperature, radiation, wind and cloudiness) within the climate system that departs significantly from previous average conditions and is seen to endure, bringing about corresponding changes in ecosystems and socio-economic activity. Changement climatique
Crown land Public land that is managed by the federal or provincial/territorial government. Terre de la Couronne
Deforestation Permanent removal of forest cover and withdrawal of land from forest use, whether deliberately or circumstantially. Déboisement
Direct employment Persons employed directly in the following industries: forestry and logging (includes timber tract operations, nurseries and logging), industries involved in support activities for forestry (for example, fire prevention/fighting, reforestation, pest control), and paper manufacturing and wood product manufacturing (includes production of lumber and other wood products). Emploi direct
Ecotourism A type of tourism that focuses on nature-related experiences (for example, bird watching). Écotourisme
Environmental goods and services Benefits humans get directly or indirectly from ecosystem functions. Ecosystem functions are the "…habitat, biological or system properties or processes of ecosystems" (Costanza et al. 1997). They include clean air and water, soil retention, and wildlife habitat, to name a few. Biens et services écologiques [ou environnementaux]
First Nations Generally, "First Nations people" is used to describe both Status and Non-Status Indians. "First Nation" has been adopted by some Indian communities to replace the term "Indian band". A band is defined as a body of Indians for whose collective use and benefit lands have been set apart or money is held by the Crown, or declared to be a band for the purposes of the Indian Act. The term is rarely used as a synonym for "Aboriginal peoples" because it usually doesn't include Inuit or Métis people. Premières nations
Forest Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern. Forêt
Forest Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. Forêt
Forest sector The forest sector includes governments, conservation and environmental groups, woodlot owners, Aboriginals, urban forestry interests, lumber and pulp and paper producers and value-added industries, forest-reliant communities, the recreation and tourism industries, and other sectors of the economy (including the energy, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries) that derive wealth and well-being from forest resources. Secteur forestier
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) An international certification and labelling system under which forests are certified against strict environmental and social standards, and fibre from certified forests is tracked from the forest to consumers. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Forest-dependent community A community that depends on a forest region for at least 50 percent of its total economy. Collectivité dépendante de la forêt
Forestry Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. Foresterie
Fuelwood Trees used for the production of firewood logs or other wood fuel. Bois de chauffage
Greenhouse gas (GHG) A gas—such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and ozone—that is transparent to incoming solar radiation but less so to the infrared radiation reflected back by the Earth’s surface, hence trapping part of the solar energy and warming the planet’s surface enough to sustain life. The build-up of greenhouse gases from industrial activities enhances the natural “greenhouse effect” and is partly responsible for global warming. Gaz à effet de serre (GES)
Greenhouse gas source Any process or activity (for example, forest fires or conversion of forest land to agricultural or urban uses) that releases greenhouse gases or precursors of those gases into the atmosphere. As trees and forest products decompose or burn, they release carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. Source de gaz à effet de serre
Innovation The use of a new idea, material or technology to produce new goods or services or to change the way in which goods or services are produced or distributed. Innovation can include improved managerial systems, new production techniques, new technology, the results of research and development, or the application of information technologies. Innovation
Integrated landscape management (ILM) The integrated planning and assessment of land uses and human activities over whole landscapes to ensure the long-term economic, social and environmental sustainability of ecosystems and their resources. It is applied at appropriate temporal and spatial scales necessary to achieve multiple management objectives. Aménagement intégré du paysage (AIP)
Integrated resource management A holistic approach to resource management that entails the management of two or more resources (for example, water, soil, timber, pasture, wildlife, and recreation) and that integrates the values of the community into the design of policies or projects to use and sustain these resources in perpetuity. Gestion intégrée des ressources
Lower Canada The southern part of present-day Québec, existing as a separate British province from 1791 to 1840. Bas-Canada
Management plan A predetermined course of action and direction to achieve a set of results, usually specified as goals, objectives and policies. Plan d'aménagement
Model forest A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis. Forêt modèle
Montréal Criteria and Indicators Process This global initiative was so named because the first meeting sponsored by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe was held in Montreal. Currently, 12 countries representing 90% of the world's boreal and temperate forests have agreed to collaborate to develop national C&I for the conservation and sustainable management of all boreal and temperate forests. Processus de Montréal sur les critères et les indicateurs
Multiple forest use A system of resource use where the forest resources in a given land unit serve more than one user. Utilisation intégrée de la forêt
National forest strategy An overarching national vision and framework for Canada’s forests developed by the Council of Canadian Forest Ministers. The first strategy appeared in 1981. Stratégie nationale sur la forêt
Non-status Indians People who consider themselves Indians or members of a First Nation but whom the Government of Canada does not recognize as Indians under the Indian Act. Indiens non inscrits
Non-timber forest products Any commodity obtained from the forest that does not necessitate harvesting trees. It includes game animals, fur-bearers, nuts and seeds, berries, mushrooms, oils, foliage, medicinal plants, peat, fuelwood, forage, etc. Produit forestier non ligneux (PFNL)
Non-timber value A value within the forest other than timber that includes, but is not limited to, biological diversity, fisheries, wildlife, minerals, water quality and quantity, recreation and tourism, cultural heritage values, and wilderness and aesthetic values. Valeurs non ligneuses
Plantation forestry Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand. Foresterie de plantation
Protocol A legally binding sub-agreement of a framework convention or treaty. Protocole
Research and development (R&D) Set of activities directed toward improving and innovating products and processes from a technological point of view and not from a commercial point of view. Encompasses basic research, applied research and development. Recherche et développement (R-D)
Risk assessment A quantitative and qualitative approach to determining the hazardous capacity of a new product. This involves the identification and characterization of hazards, an assessment of exposure to the product, and a final risk characterization of the product. Évaluation des risques
Science and technology (S&T) Systematic activities that are closely concerned with the generation, advancement, dissemination and application of scientific and technical knowledge in all fields of science and technology, including such activities as research and development (R&D), scientific and technical education and training, and scientific and technological services. Sciences et technologie (S et T)
Silvipasture An agroforestry system where trees and livestock are produced together. Système sylvopastoral
Silvopasture An agroforestry practice involving the compatible combination of tree growing with forage and livestock production in order to maximize both ecological and economic benefits. Sylvopastoralisme
Smog Mixture of polluting particles and water drops in the atmosphere that forms a thick fog in industrial regions. Smog
Status Indians People who are entitled to have their names included on the Indian Register, an official list maintained by the federal government. Status Indians are entitled to certain rights and benefits under the law. Indiens inscrits
Sustainability The capacity of forests, ranging from stands to ecoregions, to maintain their health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity, in the long run, in the context of human activity and use. The concept of producing a biological resource under management practices that ensure replacement of the part harvested, by regrowth or reproduction, before another harvest occurs. Durabilité
Sustainable forestry Management of forested area in order to provide wood products in perpetuity, soil and watershed integrity, persistence of most native species and maintenance of highly sensitive species or suitable conditions. Foresterie durable
Tariff An import tax or a list of articles and the import tax that must be paid on items on that list. A protective tariff is meant to protect local businesses from foreign competition; a retaliatory tariff is in response to a foreign country's tax on goods from your country; and an antidumping tariff is to prevent foreign countries from selling their goods in the importing country at a lower price than the goods sell for the foreign country or at a price lower than the manufacturing cost. Tarif
Treaty A legally binding agreement, often between two parties. Traité
Tree farm Privately owned woodland in which the production of wood fibre is a primary management goal, as distinct from a tree nursery, fruit orchard, or landscape business. Propriété forestière de production
Virgin forest Natural forest, the development of which has been virtually uninfluenced by modern human activity. Forêt vierge
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