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Term Definition French
NULL déchiquetage-épandage
-3/2 power law of self-thinning Dense populations that have reached a size at which mortality occurs demonstrate a negative relationship between log mean plant weight and log stand density; this generally has a slope of -3/2. Relation à la puissance -3/2 de l’éclaircie naturelle
Accessory species A species of less commercial value than the principal species but sometimes useful in assisting the latter and liable to influence the method of treatment to some degree. Essences auxiliaires
Accessory systems Any silvicultural system derived from one or more of the basic systems and not dependent on any particular method of regeneration. Traitement combiné
Adaptive management A dynamic approach to forest management in which the effects of treatments and decisions are continually monitored and used, along with research results, to modify management on a continuing basis to ensure that objectives are being met. Gestion adaptative
Adaptive management area Stands or forest types that require similar management practices and are grouped as one unit for the purposes of silviculture management. Aire de gestion adaptée
Advance regeneration Young trees under existing stands capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation. Régénération préexistante
adventitious bud NULL bourgeon adventif
adventitious root NULL racine adventive
adventitious, epicormic NULL adventif
Afforestation The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always, or for very long, been absent. Where such establishment fails and is repeated, the latter may properly be termed reafforestation. Boisement
age NULL âge
Age class A distinct group of trees or portion of growing stock recognized on the basis of age. Classe d’âge
Age gradation An age class of one or at the most a few years. Sous-classe d’âge
age-class distribution NULL répartition des classes d’âge
age-class period NULL étendue d’une classe d’âge
Air pruning Limiting extension of a root system beyond a container by exposure to air. Élagage aérien
All-aged Of a forest, crop, or stand that contains trees of all, or almost all, age classes, including those of exploitable age. De tous âges
Allelopathy The negative influence of a plant, other than a microorganism, upon another plant, through chemical exudate during their metabolism. Allélopathie
Allowable annual cut (AAC) The amount of timber that is permitted to be cut annually from a particular area. AAC is used as the basis for regulating harvest levels to ensure a sustainable supply of timber. Possibilité annuelle de coupe (PAC)
Allowable cut The volume of wood that may be harvested, under management, for a given period. Possibilité de coupe
Anchor chains Heavy chains, often with spikes welded to the links, used in drag scarification. Chaînes d’ancre
angle planting NULL plantation avec bêche
Area regenerating Includes areas that have been harvested recently (less than 10 years ago), and areas depleted by such natural disturbances as fire, insects and disease. Superficie en régénération
Artificial regeneration Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings. Régénération artificielle
Asexual reproduction Reproduction without fertilization. New individuals may develop from vegetative parts such as tubers, bulbs, or rooted stems, or from sexual parts such as unfertilized eggs or other cells in the ovule. Propagation asexuée
associated species NULL essences associées
Auger planting Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole using an auger. Plantation à la tarière
average annual stand depletion NULL épuisement annuel moyen
Avifauna Birds, in particular, all the birds of a given site: the avifauna of a marsh, a prairie, etc. Avifaune
Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) A biological insecticide developed in Canada. This natural bacterium, which occurs in soils, is sprayed on forests to combat damaging insects. Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
Backlog An administrative term used to classify inadequately stocked forest land that has been denuded (cut over, burned, etc.). Arriéré
Bacteria Single-celled organisms that have no nucleus; Plural of bacterium. Bactérie
Ball planting Setting out trees with their roots left undisturbed in a dug-out clod of soil. Note: if trees are bare-rooted, and roots are enclosed in a rough ball of soil, they are properly termed balled. Plantation en mottes
Band application Applying pesticides and/or fertilizers in a linear strip on or along crop rows rather than over the entire ground area. Pulvérisation en bandes
Band girdling Removing a broad band of bark, from several centimetres to a metre wide, all round a living bole with some sapwood or without, so as to kill (with or without the aid of herbicide), or at least weaken, the tree. Annélation totale
Banding Applying a chemical or other substance to the bole of a tree in the form of a band. Cerclage
bare-root NULL racines nues
Bark stripping Removing the bark of a tree in narrow strips. Écorçage
Basal area 1. Of a tree: The area in square metres of the cross section at breast height of the stem. 2. Of a forest, stand, or forest type: The area in square metres per hectare of the cross section at breast height of all trees. Surface terrière
Basal bark treatment A treatment for killing trees and brush in which a herbicide is applied, by sprayer or brush, to a band of bark encircling the basal portion of the stem. Traitement arboricide cortical (à la base de l’arbre)
Basal injection A treatment consisting of forcing a liquid or an encapsulated herbicide into the basal portion of a tree. Injection à la base de la tige
Basic forest management Extensive forest management plus artificial regeneration where necessary. cf. extensive forest management Aménagement forestier de base
Basic silviculture All the silvicultural practices required to achieve free-growing (or established) regeneration of desired species at specified densities and stocking. Sylviculture de base
Basket planting Setting out young trees, etc., in loosely-woven baskets in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en paniers
Bedding A site preparation procedure in which the soil is mounded mechanically to provide a well-drained ridge on which seedlings are planted or seeds distributed naturally or directly. Billonnage
Bioenergy The kinetic energy released from biomass when it is eaten, burned or converted into fuel, or the potential energy embodied in biomass. Bioénergie
Biological pest control methods The application of whole organisms or portions of organisms as biologically sound alternatives to broad-spectrum chemical pesticides. Méthodes de lutte biologique contre les ravageurs
Biomass The total mass of living organisms of one or more species per unit of area, or all the species in a community. It can be divided into above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass. Biomasse
Biomass The organic matter (cellulose and lignin) produced by plants. The term forest biomass generally refers to all of the material contained in the trees of a forest, including all their components (roots, branches, leaves, etc.). Biomasse
Biopesticide A pesticide derived from natural sources such as fungi and bacteria or created to closely resemble or be identical to a chemical produced in nature such as a pheromone. Typically a biopesticide is target-specific and has little or no impact on non-target organisms and the environment. Biopesticide
Blading Using the straight blade of a crawler tractor or similar equipment to remove coarse woody debris and thick duff off the site to create planting lines or spots. Préparation du terrain par coupe à la cisaille
Blank area Any forest area in a crop or stand that has remained virtually unstocked, more particularly in plantations. A planting point where the tree has failed or is missing. Manque
Block cutting Removal of the crop in blocks in one or more operations, generally for wildlife management purposes, encouraging regeneration, or protecting fragile sites. Considered in Ontario to be a variation of clearcutting. Coupe par blocs
Blowdown Tree or trees felled or broken off by wind, snow, ice or age. Chablis
Boreal forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also tropical forest, temperate forest) located in northern regions and is characterized by the predominance of conifers (such as pine, spruce, larch and fir) and some deciduous (such as poplar and birch). The boreal forest (singular) is a colloquial term often used to refer to the overall forested area within the boreal zone, and sometimes to refer to the boreal zone itself because forests dominate this landscape. Boreal forests (plural) is the preferred term for the forested areas within the boreal zone. Forêt boréale
Box pruning Lateral root pruning on four sides of nursery stock in situ. Previous undercutting is usually implicit. Élagage latéral (des racines)
Breast height The standard height, 1.3 m above ground level, at which the diameter of a standing tree is measured. On sloping ground, breast height is usually measured on the uphill side of the tree. Hauteur de poitrine
broadcast application NULL application en plein
Broadcast burning Allowing a controlled fire to burn over a designated area within well-defined boundaries, for reduction of fuel hazard, as a silvicultural treatment, or both. Brûlage extensif
Broadcast fertilizing The scattering of fertilizer or other mixture more or less evenly over an area. Fertilisation à la volée
Brush blade A blade having scarifier teeth instead of a plain edge, for pushing large objects like tree roots and rocks off a site, leaving smaller stones, soil, etc. in place. Lame à rémanents
Brush chopper An implement with blades mounted on a horizontal power-driven shaft, for reducing the bulk of slash after felling and so facilitating planting. Broyeuse de rémanents
brush rake NULL râteau débroussailleur
Brushing The removal of undesirable herbaceous and woody vegetation by manual or mechanical means. Débroussaillement
Bud pruning Removal of lateral buds from a stem to prevent them from developing into branches. Ébourgeonnage
Budding Grafting by inserting a bud, with a small amount of tissue, into a slit or hole made in the bark of a stock plant. After union has formed, the portion of the stock plant above the bud is removed. Écussonnage
Buffer zone A strip of land where disturbances are not allowed, or are closely monitored, to preserve aesthetic and other qualities adjacent to roads, trails, waterways and recreation sites. Zone tampon
Bullet planting Setting out young trees grown in bullet-shaped rigid plastic tubes, which are injected into the ground by a spring-loaded gun, sometimes into prepared holes. Plantation en cartouches
bumper seed crop NULL récolte surabondante
Cache A place for storing seedlings close to the planting site. Cache
Canker Lesion of the cambium and the living bark of trees that alters and kills these tissues in a localized area. Chancre
Canopy The more or less continuous cover of branches and foliage formed collectively by the crowns of adjacent trees. Couvert forestier
Canopy class syn. canopy cover class, crown class Any class into which crops or stands may be divided on the basis of the degree of closure. Classe de couvert
Canopy density The amount of foliar cover, combining the extent of canopy closure and crown density. Densité du couvert
Carbon sink A carbon reservoir that absorbs and stores carbon from another part of the carbon cycle. A sink stores more carbon than it emits to the atmosphere. This store of carbon can also be termed a reservoir or pool. Although a growing forest can be considered a carbon sink, when the forest stops growing and its trees die and start decomposing, it becomes a carbon source, because it emits more carbon than it stores. Puits de carbone
careful logging around regeneration NULL coupe avec protection de la régénération
Carpophore Structure bearing the spores of a fungus, often composed of a cap and a stem. Carpophore
Carpophore The fruiting body (spore-producing organ) of a mushroom. Carpophore
Carrier Any material, e.g. sawdust, that is thoroughly mixed with seed, fertilizer, herbicide, etc., to protect it in transit. Support
Catch crop A short-term, generally agricultural crop introduced into and at the start of a longer-rotation forest crop, mainly to provide early financial returns. Culture dérobée
Chaining syn. chain clearing, cabling in British Columbia. A method of reducing or clearing undesirable scrub by dragging through it a heavy chain (generally further weighted by objects such as concrete cylinders or large steel balls). Dragage
Chevron cuts A modification of strip cutting where the strip is angled part way along its length. Coupe par chevrons
clear cutting NULL coupe rase
Clear wood Knot-free wood formed subsequent to pruning. Bois sans défaut
clear-felled area NULL zone de coupe à blanc
Clearcut n: An area of forest land from which all merchantable trees have recently been harvested. syn. clearcutting v: To harvest all merchantable trees from an area of forest land. Coupe à blanc
Clearcutting A silvicultural method in which most merchantable trees in a stand are harvested simultaneously, producing a fully exposed microclimate for the development of a new age class. Coupe à blanc
Clearcutting method A method of regenerating an even-aged forest stand in which new seedlings become established in fully exposed microenvironments after removal of most or all of the existing trees. Regeneration can originate naturally or artificially. Mode de régénération par coupe à blanc
clearcutting system NULL système de la coupe à blanc
Climate change An alteration in measured quantities (for example, precipitation, temperature, radiation, wind and cloudiness) within the climate system that departs significantly from previous average conditions and is seen to endure, bringing about corresponding changes in ecosystems and socio-economic activity. Changement climatique
Climate change mitigation Human intervention to reduce the effects of climate change. Atténuation du changement climatique
closed canopy NULL couvert fermé
codominant NULL codominant
Commercial forest Forest land that is able to grow commercial timber within an acceptable time frame and is designated for such a purpose. Forêt d'intérêt commercial
Compatible management The management of forest lands using strategies and practices that increase the productivity of both timber and non-timber resources. Aménagement compatible
Compensatory planting Creating plantations in one area in order to replace, in part or whole, a loss of growing stock elsewhere. Reboisement de compensation
competition NULL végétation concurrente ou indésirable
Competition control A treatment designed to reduce the competitive effect of undesirable vegetation threatening the success of the regeneration of desirable tree species. cf. brushing, cleaning Lutte contre la concurrence végétale
Competitive exclusion In ecology, principle (also known as Gause’s principle) that states no two species can occupy exactly the same fundamental niche indefinitely in a habitat where they are competing for the same essential resource, and that one species will crowd out the other. Exclusion compétitive
Composition The proportion of each tree species in a stand expressed as a percentage of the total number, basal area, or volume of all tree species in the stand. Composition
Compound fertilizer A mixture of chemical nutrients added to the soil, having a broad array of actions. Fertilisant multiaction
Cone collection Harvesting of cones after seed maturation but before their dispersal. Récolte de cônes
Cone rake A device for collecting cones from a standing tree; it is lowered from a helicopter, over the crown of a tree. Cones or cone-bearing branches are removed and retrieved by the device. Cueilleur de cônes
cone year NULL bonne année (de production de cônes)
Conifer Member of a group of trees commonly called softwoods or gymnosperms. The word gymnosperm, from the Greek gymnos (naked) and sperma (seed), means "naked-seeded." This refers to the fact that conifer seeds are not contained in fruit tissue. The seeds are instead borne on scales, which are grouped together to form cones. Most conifers have persistent foliage consisting of needles or scales. Conifère
Contained root A root that does not elongate beyond the confines of the original rooting volume within a container, even when outplanted with the container removed. Racine contenue
Container Portable receptacle (pot, bag, or linked spaces) to hold rooting medium for growing planting stock. Récipient
container nursery NULL pépinière (de plants) en récipient
container planting NULL plantation (de semis) en récipient
Continuous boreal forest Main subarea of the vast boreal zone, which is characterized by relatively dense stands containing primarily boreal coniferous species and shade-intolerant deciduous trees. Forêt boréale continue
Contour furrow Trench made along a contour (i.e., horizontal) line, for the purpose of checking run-off and soil loss, and conserving moisture, in a hillside plantation. Labour de niveau
Contour planting Setting out of young trees along a contour line. Plantation en bandes de niveau
contour ploughing NULL labourage en bandes de niveau
Conversion A change from one silvicultural system to another, also called conversion cut, or from one stand of trees or ecosystem to another, termed species conversion, the silvicultural procedures involved constituting a conversion system. Conversion sylvicole
conversion period NULL durée de la conversion
Coppice Natural regeneration originating from stump sprouts, stool shoots, or root suckers. Taillis
Coppice method A method of regenerating a forest stand in which the cut trees produce sprouts, suckers, or shoots. Régime du taillis
Coppice selection method A coppice method in which only selected shoots of merchantable size are cut at each felling, giving uneven-aged stands. Taillis fureté
coppice with reserves NULL taillis sous réserve
coppice with standard NULL taillis-sous-futaie
coppice wood NULL bois de taillis
Coppice-of-two-rotations method A coppice method in which some of the coppice shoots are reserved for the whole of the next rotation, the rest being cut. Taillis composé
coppice-with-standards method NULL régime du taillis-sous-futaie
Coppicing Cutting trees close to ground level with a view to their producing coppice shoots. Coupe de rajeunissement
Copse A small woodlot or forest regularly cut over for regrowth. Bosquet de taillis
Corridor planting Setting trees in parallel rows, generally at regular intervals between and in lines, on land either wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en lignes
cover type NULL type de couvert
Crop The harvestable vegetation growing on a forest area, more particularly the major woody growth forming the forest crop. Peuplement forestier
crop planning NULL plan parcellaire de régénération
Crop tree Any tree selected to become or forming a component of the final crop. Arbre du peuplement final
Crown The upper part of a tree. Cime
crown NULL cime
Crown class Trees in a forest with crowns of similar development and occupying a similar position in the canopy; the term applies to groups of trees. Classe de cime
Crown closure class Any interval into which the range of proportions of ground area covered by the vertically projected tree crown areas of a stand is divided for classification and use. Classe de fermeture du couvert
Crown cover The ground area covered by the crowns of trees or woody vegetation as delimited by the vertical projection of crown perimeters and commonly expressed as a percentage of total ground area. Couvert
crown density NULL densité du couvert d’une cime
Crown pruning 1. Natural: Removal or decadence of lateral live crown by wind, abrasion, reduced light, etc. 2. Cultural: Mechanical removal of branch ends to shape crowns for aesthetic appeal, e.g., for Christmas trees, bonsai, etc. Taille en cime
Crushing The compaction of slash and brush by machinery. In Manitoba, the chopping of slash and provision of microsites are considered important features of this treatment. Écrasage
Cull Trees or logs or portions thereof that are of merchantable size but are rendered unmerchantable by defects. In nursery practice, a seedling that does not match the grade or specifications. Rebut
Cultivar A variety of plant cultivated on account of its favourable characteristics for horticulture, forestry or agriculture. Cultivars
cultural practices NULL pratiques culturales
cut-bark application NULL traitement par entaillage de l’écorce
cut-stump treatment NULL traitement des souches
Cutover An area of forest land from which some or all timber has recently been cut. Coupe totale
Cutting 1. [bouture (n.f.)] A short length cut from a young, living stem, branch, or root, for propagating a whole new plant, in soil or other media. 2. [abattage (n.m.)] The act of cutting down a standing tree. s Abattage
Cutting cycle The planned interval between partial harvests in an uneven-aged stand. Rotation
Cutting regime System of cutting treatments applied to a stand at a defined period. Régime d’exploitation
dbh NULL dhp
Deadwood Timber produced from dead standing trees. More commonly, timber in dead standing trees. Bois mort
Decay Decomposition of wood caused by micro-organisms, mostly fungi. The wood generally becomes soft and crumbly, loses density and changes colour. Carie
Deciduous species Trees that lose their leaves in the fall, such as birch, maple and basswood, are deciduous species. “Deciduous” means falling off or shed seasonally. Espèce arborescente décidue
Decline Disease that is characterized by a progressive decline in a tree’s health and in its growth and that may kill it. While the causes of this phenomenon are not known, it is generally believed that a combination of factors is to blame: pollution, soil acidification, drought, freeze-thaw action, etc. Dépérissement
Deep chiseling A surface treatment that loosens compacted soils. In Saskatchewan, termed decompaction. Ameublissement profond
deep ploughing NULL labourage profond
deep ripping NULL scarifiage profond
Defoliation The removal of all or most of a plant’s leaves by natural disturbance agents (e.g., insects) or through the actions of humans (e.g., the application of herbicides). Défoliation
Deforestation Permanent removal of forest cover and withdrawal of land from forest use, whether deliberately or circumstantially. Déboisement
Desirable plant species Species that contribute to management objectives. Espèces privilégiées
Diameter diameter at breast height (dbh) [diamètre à hauteur de poitrine (dhp)]: The stem diameter of a tree measured at breast height (1.3 m above ground level). Diamètre
Diameter-limit cutting Removal of all merchantable trees above a specified minimum diameter, which in mixed stands may vary with species. (1) Abattage au diamètre limite
Dibble planting Sowing seeds or setting out seedlings in rough holes made with a stick or peg. Also termed dibbling if done with a specially adapted tool such as a dibble. Plantation au bâton
Digital model Computer-based representation of a mathematical model describing natural phenomena. These models use complex equations to perform essentially mathematical simulations of natural phenomena. They are used to study and test hypotheses about tides, climate change, the changes in an insect population or a forest, and so on. Modèles numériques
Dipping The immersion of seedling roots in a solution or water prior to planting. Trempage
Discing Scarification technique using disks to break small slash and the organic layer and to cut vegetation, loosening and incorporating these into the soil. Déchaumage
Discoloration Change in the normal colour of wood following infection by a micro-organism. Coloration
Disease Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin. Maladie
Disease Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants. Maladie
dominant NULL dominant
downed timber NULL bois gisant
Downed tree Any tree that is lying on the ground, whether uprooted, stem-broken, or deliberately cut. Arbre abattu
Drag scarification Towing one or more rows of anchor chains, sharkfin barrels, tractor pads, alone or in various combinations, to break up and possibly spread slash and to loosen the forest floor and topsoil or expose mineral soil. Scarifiage par traînage
Drainage Hydrology/engineering: The process of removal of water from soil, particularly by surface runoff and subsurface percolation and artificially by measures for hastening removal, e.g., by ditching. Drainage
dressing NULL traitement (des semences)
drill NULL rayon
Drill seeder A mechanical device for sowing seed in furrowed lines (i.e., in drills). Semoir en ligne
drum chopper NULL déchiqueteuse à tambour
Dry packing In tree injection, a method of banding that uses a tight waterproof bandage packed with a chemical, either dry or in paste form. Injection à sec
Duff layer A general term referring to the litter and humus layers of the forest floor. Litière
early period NULL période de jeunesse
ecological amplitude NULL amplitude écologique
ecological land classification NULL classification écologique des zones
Ecosystem-based management Management systems that attempt to simulate ecological processes with the goal of maintaining a satisfactory level of diversity in natural landscapes and their pattern of distribution in order to ensure the sustainability of forest ecosystem processes. Aménagement écosystémique
Ecotype A race (provenance) adapted to the selective action of a particular environment. Ecotypes are described in terms of the primary environmental influence, e.g., climatic or edaphic. Écotype
Effective seedling Any seedling, whether natural or planted, that has survived in reasonable vigor for some arbitrary time and is so sited that it should make an effective contribution to the crop. Semis établi
effective stocking NULL matériel relatif efficace
Emergent A tree whose crown at maturity projects well above the level of the highest canopy. Émergent
Environmental assessment A process designed to contribute pertinent environmental information to the decision-making process of forest management or other natural resource projects and programs. Évaluation environnementale
Environmental goods and services Benefits humans get directly or indirectly from ecosystem functions. Ecosystem functions are the "…habitat, biological or system properties or processes of ecosystems" (Costanza et al. 1997). They include clean air and water, soil retention, and wildlife habitat, to name a few. Biens et services écologiques [ou environnementaux]
Epicormic shoot syn. sprout A shoot arising from a dormant or adventitious bud on the stem or branch of a woody plant. Pousse adventive
Establishment The process of developing a crop to the stage at which the young trees may be considered established, i.e., safe from juvenile mortality and no longer in need of special protection or special tending, but only routine cleaning and thinning. Établissement
Establishment period The time elapsing between the initiation of a new crop and its establishment. Période d’implantation
Eutrophication The enrichment of water by nutrients, especially compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus, that will accelerate the growth of algae and higher forms of plant life. This enrichment may interfere with the normal ecological balance of the receiving waters. Eutrophisation
Even-aged Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees. The differences in age permitted are usually 10 to 20 years. Équienne
Even-aged (forest) A forest stand or type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees (usually 10–20 years). Équienne (forêt)
Even-aged system Silvicultural systems in which stands have an even-aged structure, e.g., clearcutting method, coppice method, seed-tree method. Régime équienne
extensive forest management NULL aménagement forestier extensif
Falldown A situation in which second-growth forests provide less timber than the original forests. Exploitation secondaire
Fauna A general term for all forms of animal life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Faune
Featured-species management A type of wildlife management that does not attempt to manage for all species, but selects a few species of particular concern or interest (for example, big game species or endangered species) and aims management programs at them. With respect to habitat, it is generally assumed that providing habitat for these species provides habitat for other species as well. Gestion axée sur les espèces
Feller-buncher A self-propelled machine used to fell trees by shearing them off near the ground using a hydraulic apparatus. Some models also strip limbs and bunch the logs for later pickup. Abatteuse-groupeuse
fertilizer application NULL application d’engrais
Fertilizing The application of chemical or organic fertilizers with the objective of increasing the unit area soil productivity. Fertilisation
Field germination Generally, measure of the percentage, by number, of seeds in a given sample that germinate and produce a seedling, irrespective of subsequent seedling survival. Germination au champ
Field nursery A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies. Pépinière volante
Fill planting The planting of trees in areas of inadequate stocking to achieve the desired level of stocking, either in plantations or areas of natural regeneration. cf. interplanting Regarni
Filler A tree or species of inferior value, retained in thinning or cleaning, in the absence of any better. Remplissage (arbre de)
Final cutting The last of a series of progressive regeneration cuts which removes the last of the original seed trees when the regeneration is considered established. Coupe définitive
Fire hazard reduction Any treatment of fuels that reduces the threat of ignition and spread of fire. Réduction du risque d’incendie
Flora A general term for all forms of plant life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Flore
Forest Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. Forêt
Forest Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern. Forêt
Forest hygiene Care for the health of the forest, particularly by sanitation cutting. Hygiène sylvicole
forest improvement NULL amélioration forestière
Forest land Land primarily intended for growing, or currently supporting, forest. It includes land not now forested (for example, clearcut lands and northern lands that are forested but not intended for any commercial forestry use) and plantations. Terres forestières
Forest management That branch of forestry concerned with the overall administrative, economic, legal and social aspects and with the essentially scientific and technical aspects, especially silviculture, protection and forest regulation. Aménagement forestier
Forest management unit An area of forest land managed as a unit for fiber production and other renewable resources. This unit can be the entire province or territory, a provincial forest management subdivision, an industrial timber limit, etc. Unité d’aménagement forestier
Forest model A computer-based simulation that, within definable parameters, forecasts the development of a forest. Modèle de forêt
forest planting NULL plantation forestière
Forest practices Any activities that enhance or recover forest growth or harvest yield (e.g., site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.), and road construction or reconstruction within forest lands. Pratiques forestières
forest sanitation see forest hygiene hygiène en forêt
Forest site see forest site type Site forestier
Forest site classification Grouping of forest sites using either the composition or the productivity of the vegetation as well as soil and topographic position. Classification de station forestière
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) An international certification and labelling system under which forests are certified against strict environmental and social standards, and fibre from certified forests is tracked from the forest to consumers. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Forest tree improvement The control of parentage combined with other silvicultural activities (such as site preparation or fertilizing) to improve the overall yield and quality of products from forest lands. Amélioration générale des arbres forestiers
forest tree nursery NULL pépinière forestière
Forest tree species Group of individuals that possess common characteristics and are capable of producing fertile progeny Essences forestières
Forest type A group of forested areas or stands of similar composition; forest types are usually separated and identified by species composition and often by height and crown closure classes. Type forestier
Forestry Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. Foresterie
Forestry practices Any activity that is carried out on forest land to facilitate the use of forest resources, including, but not limited to, timber harvesting, road construction, silviculture, grazing, recreation, pest control and wildfire suppression. Pratiques forestières
Form General shape of a tree. Port
Formation All the operations contributing to the creation of a new forest cover up to the stage where it is considered established. Période d’établissement
Forwarder A self-propelled machine, usually self-loading, that transports trees or logs by carrying them completely off the ground. Porteur
Fragmentation The splitting or isolating of patches of similar habitat, typically forest cover, but including other types of habitat. Habitat can be fragmented naturally or from forest management activities, such as clearcut logging. Fragmentation
free-from-noncrop-competition NULL établi
free-to-grow NULL autonomie de croissance
Frill girdling Girdling by making a series of downward, more or less overlapping incisions, generally for the introduction of herbicide. Spaced incisions are termed frill cuts. A double series of such incisions is referred to as double-frill girdling. Annélation en encoches
frost heaving NULL déchaussement par le gel
Fuel plantation syn. fuelwood plantation Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning. Plantation énergétique
full stocking NULL matériel sur pied relatif normal
full-sib family NULL descendance biparentale
fully stocked NULL complètement reboisé
Fungicide Any agent used to kill or inhibit the growth of fungi and their spores. Fongicide
Fungicide Substance used to kill fungi. Fongicide
Fungicides Products that can inhibit the growth of fungi or kill them. Fungicides are used in agriculture and industrial plantation forestry to protect plants and trees from certain fungal diseases. Fongicides
Gap dynamics The change in space and time in the pattern, frequency, size, and successional processes of forest canopy gaps caused by the fall or death of one or more canopy trees. Dynamique des trouées
geographic information system NULL système d’information géographique (SIG)
germinability NULL viabilité germinative
Germination test A test made to determine the viability of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample. Essai de germination
Germinative capacity The percentage of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample that actually germinate, irrespective of time. In any batch of seeds, the percentage that is pure (of the species required) multiplied by the germinative capacity. Faculté germinative
Girdling 1. Silviculture: Making more or less continuous incisions around a living stem, through at least both bark and cambium, generally with the object of killing the trees. Annélation
Global warming The rise in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect. Réchauffement climatique
Graft n: A plant that has been grafted. v: To place a detached cutting or branch tip (scion) in close cambial contact with a rooted plant (understock) in such a manner that scion and rootstock unite. Greffe
Granite bedrock Geological formation that dates back more than 450 million years and is characterized by vast expanses of granite of volcanic origin. The Canadian Shield is made up largely of granite bedrock. Since granite has little capacity to neutralize acid rain, the forest ecosystems in these regions are fairly vulnerable to the effects of acid deposition. Assise granitique
granular application NULL application sous forme granulaire
Grapple A handling tool suspended from the end of the boom, consisting of a downward-turned clamp that is opened to pick up the stems or logs and then closed to lift and deposit them further away. Grappin
Green manuring Increasing the fertility of soil by raising suitable herbaceous crops on it, particularly Fabaceae, but also Cruciferae and Gramineae, and digging or ploughing them while succulent, with or without supplementary fertilizers. Engrais vert
Green tree cut Harvesting that retains live trees of a specific species and size on the area to be cut to achieve a site-specific objective. Coupe avec réserves
Greenhouse gas sinks Any process, activity or mechanism that removes greenhouse gases or their precursors from the atmosphere. The principal natural mechanism is photosynthesis. Puits de gaz à effet de serre
group cutting NULL trouée
Group method A shelterwood system in which the canopy is opened, by group cutting, so as to create fairly evenly distributed gaps which are enlarged by subsequent cuttings. Système des coupes progressives par trouées
Group planting Setting out young trees in groups. Plantation par bouquets
group shelterwood cutting NULL trouée de régénération
group system NULL mode de régénération par coupes progressives par trouées
Group-selection method A method of regenerating and maintaining uneven-aged stands in which trees are removed in small groups. Jardinage par bouquets
Growing stock All the trees growing in a forest or in a specified part of it, generally expressed in terms of number or volume. Matériel sur pied
Guild management A method of management by which species are assembled into groups based on similarities in their habitat requirements. One species is selected to indicate the group; conserving the habitat of that particular species ensures the conservation of other members of the guild. Gestion par association
Hand weeding Removing the undesirable species inhibiting the growth of valued species manually. Désherbage manuel
Hard snag A snag composed primarily of sound wood, generally merchantable. Chicot dur
hardwood NULL feuillu
Hardwood(s) (broad-leaved trees) Trees whose leaves are not persistent and fall off at the end of a defined growing season or during a period of temperature or moisture stress. This is the predominant tree type in deciduous forests. Also refers to the wood produced by these trees. Feuillus (arbres à feuilles caduques)
harrowing NULL hersage
heavy seed crop NULL récolte record
Heeling in Temporary storage of seedlings by burial of root systems in a trench. Mise en jauge
Herbicide Any chemical preparation used to kill or inhibit the growth of forbs, grasses, woody plants, and their seeds. Herbicide
Herbicide tolerant Capable of surviving and recovering from the application of herbicides. Tolérant aux herbicides
Heritage forest A forest managed to harvest forest products and to sustain the natural system, including its bioproductivity, biotic and abiotic diversity. Modern technology, equipment and methods may be used to harvest, restock and tend the forest, with an emphasis on natural restocking, supplemented with artificial restocking of appropriate endemic species. Forêt patrimoniale
High forest Crops and stands of trees, generally of seedling origin, that normally develop a high closed canopy. A term originally used to differentiate the natural, essentially seedling forest of long rotation from the artificial. Futaie
High grading A partial harvest removing only the most valuable species, or trees of desirable size and quality, without regard for the condition of the residual stand. Écrémage
High-forest systems Silvicultural systems in which the crops are normally of seedling origin, natural and/or artificial, and the rotation is, traditionally at least, long. Régime de la futaie
High-forest-with-reserves system An accessory system in which selected trees of the old crop, scattered or in groups, are retained after regeneration is completed, for the whole or a part of the next rotation. Futaie avec sur-réserves
hold-over NULL survivant
Hole planting Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole or pit. Roots separated on either side of a wedge or saddle of earth left in situ when the hole was dug is termed saddle planting. Plantation sur potets
Holistic approach Broad brush approach based on a theory according to which a whole cannot be analyzed without considering the sum of its parts or reduced to discrete elements. Approche globale
Humus A general term for the more or less decomposed (plant and animal) residues in the soil, litter therefore being excluded. Humus
humus layer NULL couche humifère
Immature In even-aged management, those trees or stands that have grown past the regeneration stage but are not yet mature. In uneven-aged management, established trees too young for commercial harvest. Jeune
Improvement cutting A cutting made in a stand past the sapling stage, primarily to improve composition and quality through the removal of less desirable trees of any species. Coupe d’amélioration
Increment The increase in diameter, basal area, height, volume, quality, or value of individual trees or stands during a given period. (5) Accroissement
Industrial plantation forestry Tree cultivation using methods of intensive silviculture: plantations made up of genetically improved stock, fertilization, drainage, phytosanitary treatments, release of higher quality stems, etc. Ligniculture
ingrowth, recruitment NULL recrutement
Insecticide Any chemical or biological preparation used to kill or disrupt the development of insects. Insecticide
Integrated landscape management (ILM) The integrated planning and assessment of land uses and human activities over whole landscapes to ensure the long-term economic, social and environmental sustainability of ecosystems and their resources. It is applied at appropriate temporal and spatial scales necessary to achieve multiple management objectives. Aménagement intégré du paysage (AIP)
integrated pest management NULL gestion intégrée des ravageurs
Integrated pest management The use of a mix of techniques and/or strategies to control pests, as opposed to the application of a single method. Lutte intégrée contre les ravageurs
integrated resource management NULL gestion intégrée des ressources
Integrated resource management A holistic approach to resource management that entails the management of two or more resources (for example, water, soil, timber, pasture, wildlife, and recreation) and that integrates the values of the community into the design of policies or projects to use and sustain these resources in perpetuity. Gestion intégrée des ressources
intensive forest management NULL aménagement forestier intensif
Intensive silviculture Application of cultural measures which, in addition to simply maintaining the forest cover, will allow an increase in the value or volume of the cut. Sylviculture intensive
Intercropping An agroforestry system involving the cultivation of agricultural crops or forest-derived crops that require full sun between rows (or other arrangements) of trees or shrubs. (See also sun system.) Culture intercalaire
intermediate NULL intermédiaire
intermediate cutting NULL coupe intermédiaire
Intermediate treatments Any treatment in a stand during that portion of the rotation not included in the final harvest or regeneration period. cf. tending Traitement intermédiaire
Interplanting Planting young trees among existing natural regeneration or previously planted trees of similar age. Plantation intercalaire
intolerant species NULL essence de lumière
Inventory (forest) A survey of a forest area to determine data such as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting. Inventaire forestier
irregular shelterwood system NULL mode de régénération par coupes progressives irrégulières
Irregular shelterwood system see shelterwood cutting Système des coupes progressives irrégulières
Irregular stocking see stocking: partially stocked Matériel relatif irrégulier
irregular uneven-aged NULL inéquienne irrégulier
J-root A root, especially a seedling tap root, having a sharp bend greater than 90, shaped like a J. Frequently introduced by inappropriate planting. Racine en J
Juvenile wood An inner layer of xylem surrounding the pith, in which the cells are smaller and/or less structurally developed than those of the outer xylem. The period during which it is formed is termed the juvenile period; it varies between individuals Bois de jeunesse
knotty core NULL cœur noueux
L-notch planting Special form of slit planting involving two slits at right angles with the seedling placed at the apex of the L. plantation avec fentes en L
Landscape Areas of land that are distinguished by differences in landforms, vegetation, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Paysage
layer NULL marcotte
Layering The rooting of an undetached branch, lying on or partially buried in the soil, or surrounded by moist fiber sealed in a plastic wrap (air layering), termed a layer, which is capable of independent growth after separation from the parent plan. Marcottage
Layering method Regeneration of a forest stand using layerings. Méthode du marcottage
Leaching Process in which soluble substances in the soil are removed by the movement of water. Lessivage
Leave strip A strip of timber left standing between two clearcut areas. Rideau d’arbres
Leave tree A tree (marked to be) left standing in an area where other trees are felled. Arbre marqué en réserve
Lifting Loosening and removing a plant from the ground as typically practised in nurseries. Arrachage
Lifting the canopy Removing the lower constituents of a canopy, e.g., the lowest undergrowth, shrubs, and small trees in a multistoried forest, mainly to assist the main crop, particularly for regeneration, but also for readier access. Élagage de dégagement
Lining out Transplanting seedlings or rooted cuttings in rows in a nursery bed. Repiquage en ligne
Litter Uppermost layer of organic debris on a forest floor. Litière
litter, duff NULL litière
Live burning The burning of green slash progressively as it is cut. Brûlage immédiat
Logging damage General term comprising wounds resulting from cutting, breakage, or crushing of trees that resulted from the felling and the removal of trees designated for cutting. May also include scoring of site and soil leading to exposure Dommage de coupe
logging debris NULL déchets de coupe
Lopping Chopping branches, tops, and small trees after felling into lengths such that the resultant slash will lie close to the ground. Ébranchage
Lumber Wood processed in a sawmill. Bois d'œuvre
machine weeding NULL désherbage mécanique
Main crop In regular crops or stands, that portion of the growing stock retained after an intermediate cutting. Peuplement principal
Management plan A predetermined course of action and direction to achieve a set of results, usually specified as goals, objectives and policies. Plan d'aménagement
Manure Commonly the dung of farm animals. Also natural or artificial food material for plants and trees, supplying nitrogen, phosphates, and potash and other essential nutrients. Fumier
Marking hammer syn. marking axe, marking cog. A light hammer having a die for stamping letters, figures, or other distinctive devices. Marteau forestier
Marking rule Means of standardizing marking practice among individuals and for various areas of the same forest type, commonly for thinning purposes. Règle de marquage
Mature In even-aged management, those trees or stands that are sufficiently developed to be harvestable and that are at or near rotation age (includes overmature trees and stands for which an overmature class has not been recognized. Mûr
Maturity class Trees or stands grouped according to their stage of development, from establishment to suitability for harvest. A maturity class may comprise one or more age classes. Classe de maturité
Mechanical planting Setting out young trees by means of a machine specially designed for this operation. Plantation mécanique
mechanized planting NULL plantation mécanisée
Merchantable Of a tree or stand that has attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Does not imply accessibility, economic or otherwise. Marchand
Merchantable snag A snag that is of sufficient quality and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Chicot marchand
Microfauna Soil-dwelling micro-organisms (animals) that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Synonym: soil fauna. Microfaune
Mist propagation An irrigation technique for rooting cuttings where water, with or without fertilizers, is sprayed in minute drops on the plants. Brumisation
Mixed stand A stand composed of two or more species in which less than 80% of trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species. The threshold in Manitoba and New Brunswick is 75%. cf. pure stand Mélangé
mixedwood NULL mixte
Mixedwoods Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae that are substantially intermingled in stands. Peuplement mixte
Mixing Site preparation technique involving rotating tillers or other devices that mix soil and surface organic material with fine debris. Mélange
Model forest A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis. Forêt modèle
Monoculture 1. General: Cultivation of a single crop or product without using the land for other purposes. 2. Biology: Extensive areas of land occupied or dominated by plant species that are closely related genetically. Monoculture
Mop-up (fire) The act of extinguishing a fire after it has been brought under control. Extinction (feu)
Mortality Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting. Mortalité
Mound planting Setting out young trees on raised microsites. Plantation sur butte
mounding, mound planting NULL buttage
Mulch Any loose covering on the surface of the soil, whether natural, like litter, or deliberately applied, like organic residues, crushed gravel, or artificial material like plastic, glass-wool, metal foil, and paper, used to reduce competing vegetation. Mulch
multi-storied NULL pluriétagé
Multiple forest use A system of resource use where the forest resources in a given land unit serve more than one user. Utilisation intégrée de la forêt
natural pruning, self-pruning NULL élagage naturel
Natural regeneration Renewal of a tree crop by natural seeding, sprouting, suckering, or layering. Régénération naturelle
Needle cast Reddening or browning of needles, sometimes leading to premature shedding of foliage. Rouge
Nest planting Setting out a number of seedlings or seeds close together in a prepared hole, pit, or spot. Plantation en nids
New forestry A forest management philosophy that attempts to retain characteristics of old-growth stands in managed stands. Nouvelle foresterie
Nodule Globulose or elongated mass formed by certain fungi or a mixture of plant and fungal tissues. Nodule
Non-commercial tree species A tree species for which there is currently no market. Essence forestière non commerciale
Non-timber value A value within the forest other than timber that includes, but is not limited to, biological diversity, fisheries, wildlife, minerals, water quality and quantity, recreation and tourism, cultural heritage values, and wilderness and aesthetic values. Valeurs non ligneuses
nonstocked NULL non reboisé
normally stocked NULL normalement reboisé
NSR see stocking: NSR incomplètement régénéré
nurse crop NULL culture-abri
Nurse log A dead or downed log that fosters tree seedlings by protecting them from such environmental factors as wind, insolation, or frost, or by providing appropriate soil and microclimate. Grume-abri
nurse tree NULL arbre-abri
Nursery An area set aside for the raising of young trees mainly for planting out. Temporary nurseries, particularly those formed beneath a high canopy of large trees, may be termed bush nurseries. cf. field nursery Pépinière
Nursery bed One of the specially prepared plots in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put. Planche
Nutrients Mineral or organic substances (elements or chemical compounds) that plants and animals require for normal growth and activity. Plants and trees obtain nutrients primarily from the soil by absorbing them through their roots. Nutriments
Occlusion The process of healing of cut branch stubs by the cambium of the surrounding stem surface. Occlusion
Old growth A stand of mature or overmature trees relatively uninfluenced by human activity. Première venue, de
Old-growth forest An old growth forest differs significantly from younger stands in structure, ecological function and species composition with respect to canopy closure, age class structure, accumulation of woody debris and the presence of species and functional processes that are representative of the potential natural community. Forêt anciennne / vieille forêt
Open forest Proposed name for the natural forest commonly found in northern Canada. This forest is a mixture of wetlands and small trees, occasionally interspersed with highly productive forests. Forêts claires
open grown NULL croissance libre, en
Opening up Considerable reduction of canopy density, e.g., by lopping, felling, or herbicidal treatment of selected trees, or naturally through pests, disease, or drought mortality. Ouverture du couvert
Opportunity wood Potential woody biomass resources available for salvage following natural disturbances—for example, wood damaged by insect pests such as the mountain pine beetle, by disease, or by fire or wind — or forestry activities — for example, small-diameter or other trees left standing. In some cases, harvesting and construction residues are also viewed as opportunity wood. Bois d’occasion
optimum stocking NULL matériel relatif optimal
Outplant A seedling, transplant, or cutting ready to be established on an area. Plant sur le terrain
over-all application NULL traitement en plein
Overmature In even-aged management, those trees or stands past the mature stage. Suranné
overplanting NULL regarnissage
overstocked NULL excessivement reboisé
Overstorey The uppermost continuous layer of a vegetation cover, for example the tree canopy in a forest ecosystem or the uppermost layer of a shrub stand. Étage dominant
Overstory removal A final harvest in which the cutting releases advance regeneration. Suppression de l’étage dominant
overtopped NULL opprimé
overtopped tree NULL arbre dominé
Paint gun A low-pressure hand tool for squirting a distinctive mark of paint on trees and timber. Pistolet marqueur
Partial cutting Removal of only part of a stand for purposes other than regenerating a new age class. Coupe partielle
Partial harvest Any cutting in which only part of the stand is harvested. Coupe partielle
partially stocked NULL partiellement reboisé
Patch burning Burning felling debris, grass, etc. in patches for the purpose of preparing sites for group planting or sowing. Brûlage par placettes
Patch cutting A silvicultural system that creates openings less than one hectare in size and is designed to manage each opening as a distinct even-aged opening. Coupe par trouées
Patch logging A modification of the clearcutting system developed in the Pacific Coast region of North America, whereby patches of about 5 to 200 ha are logged as single units, separated for as long as practicable. Exploitation par blocs
Patch scarifier A mechanized implement used to expose patches of mineral soil in a systematic pattern. Scarificateur de placeaux
Pathogen A microscopic organism or virus directly capable of causing disease. see thinning: precommercial. Pathogène
Pathogenic A parasitic organism directly capable of causing disease. Pathogène
Pathology Study of diseases and the effects they have on plants. Pathologie
Pathology The study of disease. Pathologie
Pedology Scientific discipline that is concerned with all aspects of soils. Pédologie
Pelleting Incorporating seed in a matrix of fungicide, insecticide, repellent, coloring material or inert carrier, or any combination of these, so as to form a small ball termed a seed pellet. Enrobage
Periodic block The part(s) of forest allocated for regeneration (the regeneration block) or other treatment during a specified period. (3) Affectation de régénération
Pest Any organism, whether insect, pathogen, mammal, or competing vegetation, capable of causing damage to a forest crop. Nuisible
Pest Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs. Ravageur
Pesticide Any preparation used to control populations of injurious organisms, plant or animal. Pesticide
Phloem The part of the tree that is produced through the growth of cambium cells in an outward direction. It may also be called secondary phloem. The sap produced by the leaves travels through the phloem tissue downwards in the tree. Compared with the xylem (wood) the phloem occupies a very small part of the tree. Phloème
Piling Slash disposal whereby coarse woody debris are gathered into windrows or isolated piles. Mise en andain
piling and burning NULL empilage-brûlage des rémanents
Pioneer species A species adapted to early stages of natural forest succession or growth on newly available sites. Essences transitoires
Pioneer species Species that are the first to colonize a new site or a new ecosystem. They are generally shade intolerant and need a lot of sunlight in order to grow. Poplars and birches are pioneer species. Espèce pionnière
Pit planting Setting out young trees in small depressions, natural or excavated, with a view to collecting and conserving moisture. Plantation sur trous
plant lifter NULL arracheuse
plant percentage NULL pourcentage de réussite des semis
Plant tray A flat, box-type container in which plants are raised. Caissette
Plantation forest Forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation which are either of introduced species (all planted stands) or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing. Plantation forestière
Plantation forestry Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand. Foresterie de plantation
Planting Establishing a forest by setting out seedlings, transplants, or cuttings in an area. Plantation
Planting auger A motorized auger used to create planting holes. Tarière
Planting bar A long-handled, tapered spade used to make narrow, deep holes for young plants of tap-rooted tree species. Bêche à planter
Planting gun Special devices of varying complexity which make holes by compression and either set or shoot a containerized seedling into the soil. Plantoir à pistolet
Planting machine Specially designed machine that cuts a narrow trench through the soil in which seedling roots are inserted and then held in place by closing of the trench. Planteuse
planting out NULL plantation sur le terrain
Planting spot The exact spot where a young tree has been set out. Emplacement des semis
Ploughing Operation designed to loosen compacted soils and/or to pull the roots of unwanted plants out of the ground by means of single- or double-moldboard ploughs or special shaping devices pulled by a tractor, bulldozer, or similar equipment. Labourage
plug NULL douille
Plug transplant A small container seedling which is to be planted and raised as a bare-root seedling. Plant fiche
Plus stand A stand containing a preponderance of good phenotypes, but not necessarily plus trees. Peuplement plus
Plus tree A phenotype judged (but not proved by testing) to be unusually superior in some quality or qualities. Arbre plus
Pocket of infection Area in a stand or plantation where a disease originated. Foyers d'infection
Pole A tree between a sapling and small sawtimber size. Size varies by region, e.g., for boreal and eastern forests 12-20 cm dbh. Perche
pole stage NULL stade de perchis
pollard NULL têtard
Pollard system The systematic harvest cutting of pollard shoots, with due provision for replacing exhausted or defective pollards. Taillis sur têtards
Pollarding Cutting back the crown of a tree (removal of dead, diseased or unwanted branches). Émondage
pollarding, trimming NULL émondage
Polyculture The simultaneous cultivation of a number of crops as opposed to stands composed of a single species. Polyculture
Population A group that includes all possible members of a species in a territory at a given time. Population
Pot planting Setting out young trees in pot-shaped receptacles having a closed or only perforated end and made of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en pot
Pre-commercial thinning Cutting in an immature crop or stand to improve crop spacing and to accelerate the diameter increment of favoured trees, and/or improve the average form of the trees that remain. Does not yield trees of commercial value. Éclaircie précommerciale
Precommercial thinning Silvicultural treatment that consists in freeing trees that have good growth potential from competition by cutting the lower quality stems that are competing with them. Éclaircie précommerciale
Predominant A tree whose crown has grown above the general level of the upper canopy. Prédominant
Pregermination The germination of seed, generally to the stage when the radicle is just emerging, before sowing in the field or nursery. Germination physiologique
Preparatory cutting Removing trees near the end of a rotation so as to permanently open the canopy and enlarge the crowns of seed bearers, with a view to improving conditions for seed production and natural regeneration, as typically in shelterwood systems. Coupe préparatoire
Prescribed burning The knowledgeable application of fire to a specific land area to accomplish predetermined forest management or other land use objectives. Brûlage dirigé
pricking out, transplanting NULL repiquage
Principal species The species to which the silviculture of a mixed forest is primarily directed, either for its (or their) economic or protective value. Essences principales
production nursery NULL pépinière de production
Productivity The rate of production of wood of given specifications, by volume or weight, for a given area. cf. site capability Productivité
Progeny test A test in which the genetic constitution of an individual is evaluated from the performance of its progeny produced by some specific mating system. Test de descendance
progressive clear-strip system NULL mode de régénération par coupes rases en bandes contiguës successives
Protected area A geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives. Zone / aire protégée
Protection forest All forest land managed primarily to exert beneficial influence on soil, water, landscape, or for any other purpose when production of merchantable timber, if any, is incidental. Forêt de protection
Provenance test An experiment, usually replicated, comparing trees grown from seed or cuttings collected from many parts of a species, natural range. Test de provenance
Pruning 1. The removal of live branches from standing trees, termed green pruning; or of dead branches, dry pruning. 2. Removal of live or dead branches from ground level to as high as a person's reach (2.0-2.5 m) in a young stand. Élagage
Pruning Removal of branches from a tree, particularly beneath the crown. Élagage
Pruning saw A saw specially designed to prune standing trees. Scie à élaguer
Pulp Wood chips that have been ground mechanically into fibres and are used for the production of inexpensive paper, such as newsprint, or that have been chemically treated to remove the lignin and are used to manufacture higher quality papers. Pâte
pure live seed NULL graine pure vivante
pure stand NULL pur
Quadrat A small, clearly demarcated sample area of known size on which observations are made. Quadrat
Quincunx planting Setting out four young trees to form the corners of a square with a fifth tree at its center. Plantation en quinconces
Raking Site preparation technique using a bulldozer or similar equipment with a blade having teeth instead of a plain edge, for pushing large, coarse woody debris and rocks off a site and leaving smaller stones, soil, and small finer slash. Râtelage
reafforestation NULL reboisement renouvelé
Reforestation syn. reafforestation Successful renewal of a forest crop by planting or direct seeding. Création de forêt
Regeneration Renewal of a forest crop by natural, artificial, or vegetative (regrowth) means. Also the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high. Régénération
Regeneration area The area selected, normally in a working plan or working scheme, for regeneration generally with a specified period of time in view. Quartier de régénération
Regeneration class The area, and the young trees in the area, being managed during the regeneration interval in the shelterwood silvicultural system. In this interval, old and young trees occupy the same area, the young being protected by the old. Classe de régénération
Regeneration cut Any removal of trees intended to assist regeneration already present or to make regeneration possible. Coupe de régénération
Regeneration initiation The year in which the new crop is deemed to be started at an acceptable stocking level, whether by planting, natural or artificial seeding, or by vegetative means. Début de la régénération
Regeneration interval The period between the seed cutting and the final cutting on a particular area under one of the shelterwood systems. Durée de régénération
Regeneration period The time between the initial regeneration cut and the successful reestablishment of a stand by natural or artificial means. Période de régénération
Regeneration survey An inventory of the quantity and quality of regeneration over a given area. Relevé de la régénération
Regrowth A term used in reference to coppice, as well as recovery of vegetation from treatment designed to impede or control its growth. Recrû
regular uneven-aged NULL inéquienne régulier
relative thinning intensity NULL intensité relative d’éclaircie
Reserve cutting See seed-tree method. Coupe à blanc avec réserves
Resilience The capacity of a community or ecosystem to maintain or regain normal function and development following disturbance. Résilience
Resinous See conifer. Résineux
Retention harvesting A silvicultural system designed to retain individual trees or groups of trees to maintain structural diversity over the area of the cutblock. Coupe à rétention variable
Ridge planting Setting out young trees on a long, narrow crest of excavated soil, generally on a slice thrown up by a plough. Plantation sur bourrelet
Ring-barking Removing a narrow strip of bark (only), all around a living stem, in order to stimulate flowering or to girdle it; or a felled stem or a log, for under-bark diameter measurement. Annélation partielle
Riparian forest buffer A strip of forested land of variable width adjacent to a flowing body of fresh water, which it influences and is affected by. Prone to flooding, a riparian forest buffer can be integrated into an agroforestry system and help counter stream bank erosion, protect water quality, and regularize water flow. Bande riveraine
Riparian zone A strip of land of variable width adjacent to and influenced by a body of fresh water. Zone riveraine
Ripper A toothed blade or set of heavy tines mounted at the front or rear of a vehicle for breaking up soft rock and hard ground, and tearing out stumps and boulders. Also a vehicle so equipped. Défonceuse
Ripper plough A V-shaped plough mounted with a ripper blade used for scarification on frozen soil. Charrue défonceuse
Ripping The mechanical penetration and shearing of range soils to depths of 3-7 cm for the purpose of breaking hardpan layers to facilitate penetration of plant roots, water, organic matter, and nutrients. Ripage
rock blade NULL lame de râteau
Root Part of the tree that anchors it and absorbs nutrients from the soil. Racine
Root pruning The act of reducing one or more roots considered to be superfluous, usually at some stage before outplanting, in order to improve the shape and size of a root system. Élagage des racines
Root puddling The act or treatment of immersing, sometimes several times in close succession, the root systems of bare-root planting stock in a clay slurry with the aim of improving outplant performance. Pralinage des racines
Root rake An implement, either mounted on the front of a dozer, skidder or forwarder, or trailed, having tines for collecting stumps and slash. Râteau
Root rot Decomposition of the woody tissue in roots causing the death of the cambium or bark of the roots, thus girdling the trees at the root collar and causing their death. Pourridié
Root stripping 1. The accidental removal of roots during lifting, handling, and planting, especially when caused by improper practices. 2. The removal of bark from roots. Dépouillement des racines
Root trimming The trimming of roots by a cutting tool after lifting and prior to outplanting. Taille des racines
Root wad The mass of roots, soil and rocks that remains intact when a tree, shrub, or stump is uprooted. Motte racinaire
Root-to-shoot ratio The total mass or volume of the plant root system divided by the total mass or volume of the shoot system, usually on an oven-dry basis. Rapport système racinaire/système foliacé
Rotary tiller A site preparation machine using hammers, teeth, tines, or flails mounted on a horizontal drum or horizontal or vertical shaft revolving at high speed. Laboureur à lames rotatives
Rotation The planned number of years between the formation or regeneration of a crop or stand and its final cutting at a specified stage or maturity. Révolution
Rotation burning Prescribed burning applied at regular intervals on a specific site as a means of pest control. Brûlage cyclique
Roundwood Sections of tree stems, with or without bark. May include logs, bolts, posts and pilings. Bois ronds
Rust Disease caused by a fungus that is parasitic on higher plants and may go through five different developmental stages, usually involving hosts. Following infection, orange pustules appear, possibly followed by premature shedding of foliage, witches' brooms or cankers. Rouille
Rutting The resulting depressions in the soil due to the repeated passage of a logging machine’s wheels at the same place. Orniérage
saddle planting NULL plantation sur ensellement
Salvage cutting The exploitation of trees that are dead, dying, or deteriorating (e.g., because overmature or materially damaged by fire, wind, insects, fungi, or other injurious agencies) before their timber becomes economically worthless. Coupe de récupération
Salvage harvesting The removal—after the main logging—of the rest of the timber, with a view to supplying a different class of product. Coupe de récupération
Sanitation cutting The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees, essentially to prevent the spread of pests or pathogens and so promote forest hygiene. Coupe d’assainissement
Sanitation measures The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees or their parts, or of vegetation that serves as an alternative host for crop-tree pathogens, to prevent or control the spread of pests or pathogens. Mesures sanitaires
Sapling A general term for a young tree no longer a seedling but not yet a pole, about 1-2 m high and 2-4 cm in dbh, typically growing vigorously and without dead bark or more than an occasional dead branch. Gaule
satisfactorily stocked NULL suffisamment reboisé
Sawtimber Trees that will yield logs suitable in size and quality for the production of lumber. Bois de sciage
Scalping Paring off low and surface vegetation, with most of its roots, to expose a weed-free soil surface, generally preparatory to sowing or planting thereon. If done by chemicals, termed chemical screefing. Dégazonnement
scarification NULL scarifiage
Science (forest) The study of the material universe or physical reality in order to understand it. This is done by making observations and collecting data about natural events and conditions, then organizing and explaining them with hypotheses, theories, models, laws and principles. Science forestière
Scion An aerial plant part, often a branchlet, that is grafted onto another root-bearing plant (stock, rootstock). Greffon
Scribe A tool for marking trees or round timber by scoring the outer surface. Rainette
scrub control NULL essartage
Second growth The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest. Seconde venue, de
Second growth forest The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest. Forêt de seconde venue
Secondary species A species of inferior quality and/or size, and of lesser silvicultural value, associated with the principal species. cf. accessory species Essences secondaires
Secondary succession Process whereby one stand or plant community supplants another; it is triggered by a major disturbance in a forest ecosystem. Successions secondaires
Seed bank A place in which seeds of rare plant or obsolete varieties are stored, usually vacuum-packed and under cold conditions, to prolong their viability. Banque de semences
Seed bearer 1. Any tree producing seed. 2. Any tree retained to provide seed for natural regeneration, e.g., during seed cuttings. Porte-graines
Seed collection area A forest stand that exhibits good characteristics of growth, form, and vigor and that is not managed for cone production, but from which seed is collected, usually at the time of harvest. Zone de récolte de semences
Seed cutting Removing trees in a mature stand so as to effect permanent opening of its canopy (if there was no preparatory cutting to do this) and so provide conditions for securing regeneration from the seed of trees retained for that purpose. Coupe d’ensemencement
Seed orchard A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, etc. Verger à graines
seed production area NULL peuplement producteur de graines
Seed source The locality where a seed lot was collected usually defined on an eco-geographic basis by distance, elevation, precipitation, latitude, etc. Origine des graines
Seed spot syn. seedspot A prepared, limited space, e.g., a small, cultivated patch, within which (tree) seeds are sown. Placeau
Seed trap A device for catching the seeds falling on a small area of ground, from trees or shrubs. Used for determining the amount of seedfall and the time, period, rate, and distance of dissemination. Piège à semences
Seed tree A tree selected, and often reserved, for seed collection or provision of seed for natural regeneration. Semencier
Seed year The year in which a tree species produces, either as an individual or a crop, an adequate amount of seed; applies to any species but particularly to those with irregular or infrequent seed production. Année semencière
Seed-tree method A method of regenerating a forest stand in which all trees are removed from the area except for a small number of seed-bearing trees that are left singly or in small groups. Mode de régénération par coupe avec réserve de semenciers
seed-tree removal NULL coupe des semenciers
seed-tree system NULL système de la coupe à blanc avec porte-graines
Seedbed In natural regeneration, the soil or forest floor on which seed falls. In nursery practice, and also in the field, a prepared area over which seed is sown. Lit de germination
Seeding aerial [ensemencement aérien]: Broadcast seeding of seeds or seed pellets from aircraft. broadcast [ensemencement à la volée]: The sowing of seeds more or less evenly over a whole area. Ensemencement
seeding lath A device, commonly of wood, for obtaining uniformly spaced drills in a seedbed and aiding the even distribution of hand-sown seed in them. (3) planche semoir
seedling A young tree, grown from seed, from the time of germination to the sapling stage, having a diameter at breast height of no more than 1 cm and a height of no more than 1.5 m. bare-root [semis à racines nues]: A seedling t plant
Selection Choosing individuals with desired qualities to serve as parents for the next generation. Sélection
Selection cutting Annual or periodic cutting of trees chosen individually or by groups, in an uneven-aged stand, in order to recover the yield and develop a balanced uneven-aged stand structure, while providing the cultural measures required for tree growth. Coupe de jardinage
Selection forest Forest treated and managed under the selection system. Forêt jardinée
Selection method A method of regenerating a forest stand and maintaining an uneven-aged structure by removing some trees in all size classes either singly or in small groups or strips. Jardinage
Selection pressure Environmental influences on an organism that determine its likelihood of being preferentially selected among its co-habitants, that is, having a better survival and/or reproduction. Pression sélective
selective cutting NULL coupe d’écrémage
selective harvesting NULL récolte d’écrémage
severance felling NULL coupe de préparation de lisière
Sexual reproduction Reproduction that involves the fusion of genetic material from two distinct entities. Reproduction sexuée
Shade system An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs whose canopy provides the appropriate level of shade to grow shade-requiring (perennial) crops. Système de production sous couvert forestier
shade tolerant species NULL essence d’ombre
Shark-fin barrel A mechanical site preparation device consisting of pairs of metal barrels on which are welded steel fins along opposing spiral lines. Rouleau nageoire-de-requin
Shearing 1. A method of harvest using mechanical shears. 2. The shaping of a tree crown, particularly with respect to Christmas trees or ornamentals, by removing part of the leader and/or the ends of live branches to comply with a desired crown for Abattage à la cisaille (mécanique)
Shelterbelt A strip of living trees and/or shrubs maintained mainly to provide shelter for open land from wind, desiccation, snow-drift, etc. Rideau-abri
Shelterwood cutting Any regeneration cutting in a more or less regular and mature crop, designed to establish a new crop under the protection (overhead or side) of the old, or where the resultant crop will be more or less regular. Coupes progressives
shelterwood strip system NULL système des coupes progressives par bandes
Shoot pruning Cutting away undesirable shoots to favor survival and growth of selected shoots. Élagage des rejets
Shortwood harvesting Felling and cross-cutting on the spot, i.e. transporting the logs from the cutting, not the whole bole or tree. Exploitation en bois courts
sibs NULL fratrie
side-hole planting NULL plantation en côté de potet
Silvics The study of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands, with particular reference to locality factors as a basis of silviculture. Écologie forestière
silvicultural decision model NULL modèle de décision
Silvicultural efficacity The capacity of a herbicide indirectly to promote positive growth responses in crop trees. Efficacité sylvicole
Silvicultural regime A series of stand tending (thinning, pruning, etc.) treatments applied after regeneration to achieve a specific stand management objective. Traitement sylvicole
Silvicultural system A process that applies silvicultural practices, including tending (thinning, pruning, etc.), harvesting, and replacement, to a stand in order to produce a crop of timber and other forest products. Note: the system is named by the cutting Régime sylvicole
Silviculture The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands to achieve the objectives of management. Sylviculture
Silviculture Practices aimed at ensuring wise harvesting of forest resources : conservation, regeneration, reforestation, cutting, etc. Sylviculture
Silvipasture An agroforestry system where trees and livestock are produced together. Système sylvopastoral
Silvopasture An agroforestry practice involving the compatible combination of tree growing with forage and livestock production in order to maximize both ecological and economic benefits. Sylvopastoralisme
Simple coppice system A coppice system in which the crop is clearcut and regenerated by stool shoots, stump sprouts, or root suckers, giving even-aged stands; rotation is relatively short. Taillis simple
single storied NULL monoétagé
Single tree selection A method of regenerating uneven-aged stands in which individual trees are removed more or less uniformly throughout the stand. Jardinage par arbre
Single-moldboard plough A plough with one moldboard, generally right-hand, turning the whole furrow slice to one side of the furrow. Charrue à versoir simple
single-tree selection method NULL jardinage par arbre
Site A land area based on its climatic, physiographic, edaphic, and biotic factors that determine its suitability and productivity for particular species and silvicultural alternatives. Site
Site capability The mean annual increment in merchantable volume which can be expected for a forest area, assuming it is fully stocked by one or more species best adapted to the site, at or near rotation age. Expressed in cubic metres per he Potentiel de station
Site class Any interval into which the site index range is divided for purposes of classification and use. Classe de station
Site classification Application of analytical techniques based on macroclimate, soil, land form, and vegetation, to predict yield. Classification de station
Site factor An ecological term referring to a physical or biological parameter used to describe and distinguish sites. Facteur de station
Site improvement Modifications to a given site in order to improve growing conditions for a specific species or mixture of species. Amélioration de la station
Site index An expression of forest site quality based on the height, at a specified age, of dominant and codominant trees in a stand. May be grouped into site classes. Expressed in metres. Usually refers to a particular species. Indice de station
Site quality The productive capacity of a site; usually expressed as volume production of a given species per unit area (cubic metres per hectare) or per unit of time (cubic metres per year). Qualité de station
Size classes Ranges in tree sizes representing stages in the development of a tree or stand. Classe de dimension
Slash The residue left on the ground after felling and tending and/or accumulating there as a result of storm, fire, girdling, or treatment with herbicide. It includes unutilized logs, uprooted stumps, broken or uprooted stems. Rémanents
Slash burning Intentional burning of debris resulting from timber harvesting operations, where the fuel has not been piled or windrowed, allowing the fire to spread freely over the entire harvested area. Brûlage à plat
slash disposal NULL traitement-élimination des rémanents
Slash disposal The treatment or handling of slash, particularly so as to reduce fire or insect hazard. Élimination des rémanents
slash removal NULL enlèvement des rémanents
sleeve planting NULL plantation en tube
Slit planting Prying open a cut made by a spade, mattock, or planting bar (termed bar planting), inserting a young tree, then closing the cut on the latter by pressure. Plantation en fente
Snag A standing dead tree from which the leaves and most of the branches have fallen. Chicot
Snagging Removing or cutting away snags, on land or in water. Arasement des chicots
Soft snag A snag composed primarily of wood in advanced stages of decay and deterioration, particularly in the sapwood portion. Chicot pourri
softwood NULL résineux
Sowing brick A prepared, sometimes fertilized, block or ball of loam, peat, plastic foam, etc., into which one or more seeds are pressed, so that, on planting out, the emergent seedling can have a better start in an unfavorable environment. Motte à semis
Spacing The distance between trees in a plantation, a thinned stand, or a natural stand. v: see thinning: spacing Espacement
SPF (spruce-pine-fir) Canadian woods of similar characteristics that are grouped as one lumber type for production and marketing purposes. EPS (épinette-pin-sapin)
Spot planting Setting out young trees in small, prepared patches. Plantation sur placeaux
Spot scarifier A scarification implement enabling site preparation on patches. Scarificateur sur placeaux
Spot weeding Removing undesirable vegetation from patches. Désherbage localisé
spray gun NULL pistolet vaporisateur
Spreader Any substance, solid or liquid, that, when added to a pesticide, herbicide, liquid fertilizer, or fire retardant, enables it to spread better over the surfaces on which it is deposited. Dispersant
spring-tine cultivator An implement designed to loosen the soil surface by the action of spring-loaded retractible teeth. cultivateur à dents souples
Sprout Generally, any shoot arising from a plant. More particularly, a shoot arising from the base of a plant, from the stool (stool shoot) or from the root (sucker). Rejet de taillis
square planting NULL plantation en carrés
stagnant, check NULL stagnant
Stand A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas, thus forming a silvicultural or management entity. Peuplement
Stand condition The descriptive measurement of a stand by the criteria of composition, health, age, size, volume, or spatial arrangement. État d’un peuplement
Stand density A quantitative measurement of tree stocking, expressed in terms of number of trees, total basal area, or volume, per unit of area. More precisely, a measure of the degree of crowding of trees within a stand. Densité de peuplement
stand density index NULL indice de densité de peuplement
stand density management diagram NULL diagramme d’aménagement de la densité de peuplement
stand development NULL développement d’un peuplement
stand improvement NULL amélioration d’un peuplement
Stand model A mathematical model that forecasts the development of a forest stand, usually in terms of mean stand attributes, e.g., mean diameter, height. Modèle de peuplement
stand table NULL tableau d’inventaire
Stand table A summary table showing the number of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. The data may also be presented in the form of a frequency distribution of diameter classes. Table de peuplement
stand type NULL type de peuplement
Standard A tree selected to remain standing, after the rest of the stand has been felled over a younger or a new crop, for some special purpose, e.g., shelter, seeding, production of a special quality or size of timber. Réserve
stock NULL porte-greffe
Stock table A summary table showing the volume of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. Table de stock
Stocked forest land Land supporting tree growth. In this context, tree growth includes seedlings and saplings. Terrain forestier boisé
Stocked quadrat In regeneration surveys, a quadrat having at least one live tree seedling or regrowth. The criteria for what constitutes a "stocked" area vary with species, site, country, etc. Parcelle régénérée
Stocking A qualitative expression of the adequacy of tree cover on an area, in terms of crown closure, number of trees, basal area, or volume, in relation to a preestablished norm. Densité relative
stocking control NULL surveillance du matériel relatif
Stocking guide Reference level for the optimum proportion of an area actually occupied by trees, expressed in terms of stocked quadrats or percentage of canopy closure. Guide de stocking
Storied high forest A crop of trees in which the canopy can be differentiated into one or more layers, the dominant species in natural forest generally differing in each layer. Futaie pluriétagée
Story A horizontal stratum or layer in a plant community; in forests, appearing as one or more canopies. A forest having more than two stories is called multistoried. A forest having one story (the main story) is called single-storied. Étage
Strip cropping Crop planting in which strips of heavy-rooted plants are alternated with loose-rooted plants which serve as barriers to wind and water erosion. Plantation en lisières
Strip cutting Removal of the crop in strips in more than one operations, generally for encouraging natural regeneration or protecting fragile sites. Considered to be a variation of clearcutting. Coupe par bandes
Strip planting Setting trees, generally in two or more parallel lines, in a long narrow area of land that has been wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en bandes
strip shelterwood system NULL mode de régénération par coupes progressives par bandes
strip-and-group system NULL mode de régénération par coupes progressives en placettes et bandes
Structure The distribution of trees in a stand or group by age, size, or crown classes (e.g., all-aged, even-aged, uneven-aged, regular, and irregular structures). Structure
Stub The broken or cut base of a branch projecting from a tree stem. Chicot
stump blade NULL lame dessoucheuse
Stump extraction A general term for the process of pulling out stumps by force. Removal of stumps may be done to facilitate scarification or to prevent infection from diseased root systems. Dessouchage
stump sprout NULL rejet de souche
Stump treatment Application of herbicides to or near hardwood stumps to prevent coppicing. Also, fungicides or paint can be applied to prevent fungal infection. Badigeonnage de souches
Stumpage fee The fee paid by an individual or company for the timber they harvest from public forests or privately owned forest land. Droit de coupe
Stunted Characteristic of a plant that has not developed normally and resembles a bonsai. Rabougris
subdominant NULL subdominant
subsidiary crop NULL peuplement secondaire
Succession The gradual supplanting of one community of plants by another, the sequence of communities being termed a sere and each stage seral. Succession
Sun system An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs with agricultural crops or forest-derived crops that require full sun. As the trees/shrubs grow, the canopy closes, and the level of shade increases, a sun system may become a shade system or another agroforestry system. (See also intercropping.) Système de production à découvert
suppressed NULL dominé
suppressed tree NULL supprimé
Sustainability The capacity of forests, ranging from stands to ecoregions, to maintain their health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity, in the long run, in the context of human activity and use. The concept of producing a biological resource under management practices that ensure replacement of the part harvested, by regrowth or reproduction, before another harvest occurs. Durabilité
Sustainable forest management Management that maintains and enhances the long-term health of forest ecosystems for the benefit of all living things while providing environmental, economic, social and cultural opportunities for present and future generations. Aménagement forestier durable
Sustainable forestry Management of forested area in order to provide wood products in perpetuity, soil and watershed integrity, persistence of most native species and maintenance of highly sensitive species or suitable conditions. Foresterie durable
Sustainable Forestry Initiative A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality. Sustainable Forestry Initiative
Sustained yield The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management. Rendement soutenu
Sustained-yield forestry The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management. Foresterie à rendement soutenu
T-notching see slit planting Bêchage en T
Taungya plantation The raising of a forest crop in conjunction with a temporary agricultural crop. Plantation en taungya
taungya system NULL taungya, méthode
Temperate forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, tropical forest). The woodland of rather mild climatic areas; composed mainly of deciduous trees. Forêt tempérée
Tending Generally, any operation carried out for the benefit of a forest crop or an individual thereof, at any stage of its life; covers operations both on the crop itself, e.g., thinnings and improvement cuttings, and on competing vegetation. Soins culturaux
Tending felling An operation comprising cleanings and thinnings. Coupe d’entretien
thicket stage NULL stade de fourré
Thinning A partial cutting or spacing operation made in an immature forest stand to accelerate the growth of the remaining trees. Éclaircie
Thinning cycle The time interval between thinnings in the same stand. Cycle d’éclaircie
thinning frequency NULL périodicité des éclaircies
Thinning grade The severity of low thinning based on the crown classes removed, ranging from very light (Grade A) to very heavy (Grade E). Dosage d’éclaircie
Thinning intensity A measure of the combined effect of thinning weight and thinning frequency, in terms of the volume removed during any succession of thinnings, sometimes expressed as an average annual stand depletion. Intensité d’éclaircie
Thinning out Removal of seedling or sapling in excess in a young stand in order to favor residual tree development. Dépressage
Thinning regime A term comprising the type, degree, and frequency of thinning for a given area, generally along with the year of commencement and sometimes termination. Système d’éclaircie
thinning schedule NULL règlement d’éclaircies
Thinning series Two or more adjacent forest plots that are thinned differently (e.g., to different thinning grades), essentially so as to compare the increment of individual stems. Groupe d’éclaircies comparées
thinning weight NULL intensité du passage en éclaircie
Tie ridge In contour furrowing and trenching, a narrow strip of ground left unexcavated so as to break the horizontal continuity of the trenching and thus contain and properly distribute any precipitation. Cloisonnement
Timber A general term for forest crops and stands, and sometimes for any lesser aggregation of such trees. Bois
timber stand improvement NULL opération d’amélioration
Timberbelt Multiple rows of trees planted to provide environmental benefits (including wind protection, soil conservation, and wildlife corridors) and the opportunity for woody biomass production for conversion into bioenergy and other bioproducts. It can also act as an agroforestry system for the production of agricultural or forest-derived crops. Haie brise-vent
tine cultivator NULL cultivateur à éperon
tine harrow NULL herse à éperon
Tine plough A plough in which the leading edge of the landside is extended forward and downward as a tine-bearing replaceable sock. Charrue à éperon
tolerance limits NULL limites de tolérance
top dressing NULL préparation du sol superficiel
Trainer A tree beneath the main canopy which by its shading and/or abrasive action hastens the natural pruning or improves the form of some other tree. Dominé élagueur
Transplant A seedling that has been replanted one or more times in a nursery to improve its size and growth potential characteristics. Also a tree that is moved from one place to another. Plant repiqué
transplantation NULL transplantation
transplanter NULL repiqueuse
Transplanting board A simple device having regularly spaced slots for the individual plants so as to ensure proper spacing and lining out in the new bed. Planche à repiquer
Transplanting machine An implement used to line out transplants in a nursery. Repiqueuse mécanique
Transplanting plough A plough used in the nursery to open trench for the roots of plants being lined out, while simultaneously backfilling it. Charrue planteuse
Tree class Any class into which the trees forming a crop or stand may be divided for a variety of purposes. Classe d’arbre
Tree farm Privately owned woodland in which the production of wood fibre is a primary management goal, as distinct from a tree nursery, fruit orchard, or landscape business. Propriété forestière de production
Tree injection The deliberate introduction, by pressure or simple absorption of a chemical -- generally a water-soluble salt in solution -- into the sapstream of a living tree. Injection d’arbres
Tree injector A specially designed tool used to inject a solution into a living tree. Injecteur
Tree marking Selection and indication, usually by marking with paint on the stem, of trees to be felled or retained. Marquage
Tree shaker A machine designed to shake a tree in order to dislodge its fruits for collection from the ground. Secoueuse mécanique
Tree spade Hydraulic accessory attached to a machine used for transplanting landscape stock. Pelle hydraulique à arbres
Tree surgery The care and repair of trees valued for amenity. Chirurgie des arbres
Trench planting Setting out young trees in a shallow trench or a continuous slit. Plantation en sillon
Trencher In a planting machine, a metal shoe behind the share, which makes the trench for the plant roots. Soc planteur
Trenching Site preparation technique creating a more or less continuous furrow, with surface debris, duff, and low vegetation scattered to one side, using shaping devices pulled or often hydraulically powered by a prime mover. Scarifiage par sillons
Tube planting Setting out young trees in narrow, open-ended cylinders of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or into which they have been transplanted. Plantation de semis en tube
tubed seedling NULL semis en tube
two-aged stand NULL peuplement à deux classes d’âge
Two-furrow plough A plough with two moldboards turning the furrow slices to the same side. Charrue à deux socs et versoirs simultanés
two-stage cutting NULL coupe en deux abattages
two-storeyed stand NULL peuplement à deux étages
two-storied high-forest system NULL traitement en futaie à deux étages
underbrush, undergrowth NULL sous-bois
Undercutting Root-pruning of nursery stock in situ, particularly by horizontal cut. Cernage
Underplant Young trees used for underplanting. Plant de sous-étage
Underplanting Planting young trees under the canopy of an existing stand. Plantation en sous-étage
understocking NULL matériel sur pied relativement déficient
Understorey The lower level of vegetation in a forest. Usually formed by ground vegetation (mosses, herbs and lichens), herbs and shrubs. Sous-étage
Understory protection Removal of mature trees while damage to the understory is kept to a minimum. Protection du sous-étage
understory, underwood NULL sous-étage
Undesirable species Species that conflict with or do not contribute to the management objectives. Essences indésirables
Uneven-aged Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which intermingling trees differ markedly in age. The differences in age permitted in an uneven-aged stand are usually greater than 10-20 years. Inéquienne
Uneven-aged system A silvicultural system in which stands have an uneven-aged structure. Régime inéquienne
uniform shelterwood system NULL mode de régénération par coupes progressives uniformes
Unmerchantable Of a tree or stand that has not attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Non marchand
Uprooting The removal of trees with their roots by detaching or breaking the roots below the ground surface. Déracinage
Urban forest The trees, forests, and associated organisms that grow near buildings and in gardens, green spaces, parks, and golf courses located in village, town, suburban, and urban areas. Forêt urbaine
Variable-retention A silvicultural system that follows nature’s model by always retaining part of the forest after harvesting. Standing trees are left in a dispersed or aggregated form to meet objectives such as retaining old-growth structure, habitat protection and visual quality. Variable retention retains structural features (snags, large woody debris, live trees of varying sizes, canopy levels) as wildlife habitat. Rétention variable
Vegetative propagation Reproduction by other than sexually produced seed. Includes grafting, budding, rooting of cuttings, and tissue and cell culture, including embryogenesis. Multiplication végétative
Vertical diversity The diversity in a stand that results from the complexity of the above-ground structure of the vegetation. Diversité verticale
Vertical structure The structure formed by different layers of vegetation in a forest. Structure verticale
veteran A tree that has escaped logging, windthrow, or fire, and occupies a dominant position in the stand. vétéran
Vigor class Assumption of the health of a tree based on observation of the foliage. Classe de vigueur
Virgin forest Natural forest, the development of which has been virtually uninfluenced by modern human activity. Forêt vierge
Volunteer growth Natural regeneration following site preparation and seeding or planting that could either supplement or completely obscure the trees being planted or seeded on the area. Régénération subséquente
Water bombing The act of dropping suppressants (water or short-term retardant) on a wildfire from an aircraft in flight. Arrosage aérien
Watershed The area drained by an underground or surface stream, or by a system of streams. Bassin hydrographique
Wedge system A modification of the strip shelterwood system in which cuttings begin as narrow, interior, wedge-shaped strips with the apex into the prevailing wind, and are then successively enlarged and advanced; regeneration is mainly natural. Mode de régénération par coupes progressives en coin
Weed tree Any tree of a species having little or no economic value on the site in question. Indésirable
Weeding A release treatment in stands during the seedling stage that eliminates or suppresses undesirable vegetation regardless of crown position. Désherbage
weeds NULL mauvaises herbes
Wildling syn.: wilding, wild seedling A naturally grown, in contrast to a nursery-raised, seedling, sometimes used in forest planting when nursery stock is scarce. Semis naturel
Wilt Drying out, loss of colour and shape of leaves, then twigs and branches, caused by a lack of water or the presence of toxins. Flétrissement
Windbreak A small-scale shelterbelt or other barrier, natural or artificial, maintained against the wind. Brise-vent
Windfall 1. A tree or trees thrown down or with their stems broken off or other parts blown down by the wind. 2. Any area on which the trees have been thrown down or broken by the wind. Chablis
Windrow Slash, brushwood, etc., concentrated along a line so as to clear the intervening ground between two of them. Andain
Windrow planting Planting between the two lanes created in windrowing. Plantation sur entrandain
Windthrow Uprooting by the wind. 2. Tree or trees so uprooted. Déracinement par le vent
Wolf tree A tree, generally overtopping and of poor form, that occupies more growing space than its commercial value warrants. Arbre loup
Wood A plant tissue composed essentially of lignified fibers of cellulose and hemicellulose. Wood is present in the stems of trees and shrubs where it ensures support and conducts water. (See also cellulose and lignin.) Bois
Working group An aggregate of forest stands, or forest stand and forest sites, which are grouped for the purpose of applying a common set of silvicultural treatments (also called operational group). Section d’aménagement
wrenching NULL soulevage
Yearling A one-year-old seedling. Semis de l’année
Yield table Tables and graphs illustrating volumes per hectare of stands at a specific age. normal yield table [table de rendement normal]: Estimated stand volume per age class at normal stocking. Table de rendement
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