Glossary

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Forest conditions, monitoring and reporting

Term Definition French
-3/2 power law of self-thinning Dense populations that have reached a size at which mortality occurs demonstrate a negative relationship between log mean plant weight and log stand density; this generally has a slope of -3/2. Relation à la puissance -3/2 de l’éclaircie naturelle
Abiotic stress Stress induced by the non-living component of the environment. Stress abiotique
Aboriginal land Lands within Aboriginal reserves or Aboriginal settlements. Terres autochtones
Acid precipitation Rain, snow, sleet, hail or fog, usually with acidity below pH 5.6. Acidic precipitation is primarily the result of emissions of gases of sulphur and nitrogen oxides which are transformed into sulphuric acid and nitric acid respectively as they are transported over distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometres from their source. Précipitation acide
Adaptive management A dynamic approach to forest management in which the effects of treatments and decisions are continually monitored and used, along with research results, to modify management on a continuing basis to ensure that objectives are being met. Gestion adaptative
Advance regeneration Young trees under existing stands capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation. Régénération préexistante
Afforestation The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always, or for very long, been absent. Where such establishment fails and is repeated, the latter may properly be termed reafforestation. Boisement
All-aged Of a forest, crop, or stand that contains trees of all, or almost all, age classes, including those of exploitable age. De tous âges
Allowable annual cut (AAC) The amount of timber that is permitted to be cut annually from a particular area. AAC is used as the basis for regulating harvest levels to ensure a sustainable supply of timber. Possibilité annuelle de coupe (PAC)
Allowable cut The volume of wood that may be harvested, under management, for a given period. Possibilité de coupe
Anthropogenic emission Emission caused by human activities (for example, burning fossil fuels or setting fires to clear forest land for agricultural purposes). Émission anthropique
Anthropogenic removal Removal resulting from human activities (for example, planting trees). Réduction anthropique
Arboriculture The cultivation, that is, growing and tending, of trees and shrubs, individually or in small groups, generally for ornament, protection, and instruction rather than direct use or profit. Arboriculture
Area regenerating Includes areas that have been harvested recently (less than 10 years ago), and areas depleted by such natural disturbances as fire, insects and disease. Superficie en régénération
Artificial regeneration Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings. Régénération artificielle
Auger planting Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole using an auger. Plantation à la tarière
Backlog An administrative term used to classify inadequately stocked forest land that has been denuded (cut over, burned, etc.). Arriéré
Ball planting Setting out trees with their roots left undisturbed in a dug-out clod of soil. Note: if trees are bare-rooted, and roots are enclosed in a rough ball of soil, they are properly termed balled. Plantation en mottes
Bark stripping Removing the bark of a tree in narrow strips. Écorçage
Basal area 1. Of a tree: The area in square metres of the cross section at breast height of the stem. 2. Of a forest, stand, or forest type: The area in square metres per hectare of the cross section at breast height of all trees. Surface terrière
Basic silviculture All the silvicultural practices required to achieve free-growing (or established) regeneration of desired species at specified densities and stocking. Sylviculture de base
Basket planting Setting out young trees, etc., in loosely-woven baskets in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en paniers
Biodiversity The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity). Biodiversité
Biological pest control methods The application of whole organisms or portions of organisms as biologically sound alternatives to broad-spectrum chemical pesticides. Méthodes de lutte biologique contre les ravageurs
Biosphere The portion of the earth comprising the lower atmosphere, the seas, and the land surface (mantle rock) in which living organisms exist. Biosphère
Boreal forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also tropical forest, temperate forest) located in northern regions and is characterized by the predominance of conifers (such as pine, spruce, larch and fir) and some deciduous (such as poplar and birch). The boreal forest (singular) is a colloquial term often used to refer to the overall forested area within the boreal zone, and sometimes to refer to the boreal zone itself because forests dominate this landscape. Boreal forests (plural) is the preferred term for the forested areas within the boreal zone. Forêt boréale
Bullet planting Setting out young trees grown in bullet-shaped rigid plastic tubes, which are injected into the ground by a spring-loaded gun, sometimes into prepared holes. Plantation en cartouches
Canadian Standards Association (CSA) A leading developer of standards and codes, including an internationally recognized forestry certification system. The CSA is a not-for-profit, membership-based association. Association canadienne de normalisation (CSA)
Canopy The more or less continuous cover of branches and foliage formed collectively by the crowns of adjacent trees. Couvert forestier
Canopy density The amount of foliar cover, combining the extent of canopy closure and crown density. Densité du couvert
Carbon A chemical element highly abundant in nature and easily capable of forming polymers. Its unique properties make carbon the chemical basis of all biological compounds—and therefore, the chemical basis of life. Carbon is incorporated into biological processes and biomass mainly through plant photosynthesis. (See also carbon dioxide.) Carbone
Carbon budget Comparative evaluation of the amount of carbon stored in natural forests (sinks) and the amount emitted by them (sources), which is undertaken to determine whether the forests are sequestering more carbon than they are emitting to the atmosphere. Carbon budgets can be drawn up on various scales, including global. Bilan de carbone
Carbon dioxide (CO2) A colourless, odourless, non-combustible gas. Humans and all other living organisms give off carbon dioxide in respiration and decomposition. Trees and other plants absorb it and use it during photosynthesis. CO2 also emitted as a by-product of burning fossil fuels. Dioxyde de carbone (CO2)
Carbon footprint The total direct greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions produced by a facility to manufacture a range of products or an individual product. Empreinte carbone
Carbon neutrality When the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere equals the amount sequestered or offset. Neutralité carbonique
Carbon sequestration The uptake and storage of carbon. Trees and plants, for example, absorb carbon dioxide, release the oxygen and store the carbon. Fossil fuels were at one time biomass and continue to store the carbon until burned. Piégeage de carbone
Carbon sink A carbon reservoir that absorbs and stores carbon from another part of the carbon cycle. A sink stores more carbon than it emits to the atmosphere. This store of carbon can also be termed a reservoir or pool. Although a growing forest can be considered a carbon sink, when the forest stops growing and its trees die and start decomposing, it becomes a carbon source, because it emits more carbon than it stores. Puits de carbone
Catch crop A short-term, generally agricultural crop introduced into and at the start of a longer-rotation forest crop, mainly to provide early financial returns. Culture dérobée
Certification (forest) Forest certification is a market-based instrument aimed at promoting sustainable forest management that takes into account environmental, economic and social issues. It involves the independent assessment of forest management according to internationally (or nationally) accepted standards, and the tracking and monitoring of the supply of forest products to the market place. If the forest management is in compliance with a set of specified standards, and the timber from this forest has been tracked and accounted for through all stages of the production process, then it can be given a label which is recognized in the market place. Certification forestière
Chain of custody The process of monitoring the production and distribution of goods from the forest to the end-product, i.e., tracing the origin of the product. Continuité de possession
Climate change An alteration in measured quantities (for example, precipitation, temperature, radiation, wind and cloudiness) within the climate system that departs significantly from previous average conditions and is seen to endure, bringing about corresponding changes in ecosystems and socio-economic activity. Changement climatique
Climate change adaptation An adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli. Adaptation au changement climatique
Climate change mitigation Human intervention to reduce the effects of climate change. Atténuation du changement climatique
Commercial forest Forest land that is able to grow commercial timber within an acceptable time frame and is designated for such a purpose. Forêt d'intérêt commercial
Compensatory planting Creating plantations in one area in order to replace, in part or whole, a loss of growing stock elsewhere. Reboisement de compensation
Coniferous Refers to a forest stand or category of trees or bush that is popularly called "evergreen". The wood of conifers is commercially known as "softwood". Conifères
Continuous boreal forest Main subarea of the vast boreal zone, which is characterized by relatively dense stands containing primarily boreal coniferous species and shade-intolerant deciduous trees. Forêt boréale continue
Contour planting Setting out of young trees along a contour line. Plantation en bandes de niveau
Convention A legally binding agreement, often among many parties. Convention
Conversion A change from one silvicultural system to another, also called conversion cut, or from one stand of trees or ecosystem to another, termed species conversion, the silvicultural procedures involved constituting a conversion system. Conversion sylvicole
Coppice Natural regeneration originating from stump sprouts, stool shoots, or root suckers. Taillis
Coppice method A method of regenerating a forest stand in which the cut trees produce sprouts, suckers, or shoots. Régime du taillis
Coppice selection method A coppice method in which only selected shoots of merchantable size are cut at each felling, giving uneven-aged stands. Taillis fureté
Coppice-of-two-rotations method A coppice method in which some of the coppice shoots are reserved for the whole of the next rotation, the rest being cut. Taillis composé
Cordillera An elongated range of mountains. Cordillère
Corridor planting Setting trees in parallel rows, generally at regular intervals between and in lines, on land either wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en lignes
Crop The harvestable vegetation growing on a forest area, more particularly the major woody growth forming the forest crop. Peuplement forestier
Crown land Public land that is managed by the federal or provincial/territorial government. Terre de la Couronne
Cutting regime System of cutting treatments applied to a stand at a defined period. Régime d’exploitation
Deadwood Timber produced from dead standing trees. More commonly, timber in dead standing trees. Bois mort
Deciduous forest Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is characterized mainly by sugar maple-dominated deciduous forests. This is the subarea with the greatest floristic richness. Forêt décidue
Decline Disease that is characterized by a progressive decline in a tree’s health and in its growth and that may kill it. While the causes of this phenomenon are not known, it is generally believed that a combination of factors is to blame: pollution, soil acidification, drought, freeze-thaw action, etc. Dépérissement
Deforestation Permanent removal of forest cover and withdrawal of land from forest use, whether deliberately or circumstantially. Déboisement
Dendrology The study of trees; tree identification. Dendrologie
Desertification The transformation of once-productive arid and semi-arid areas into deserts through prolonged drought or continued mismanagement of land and water resources. Désertification
Dibble planting Sowing seeds or setting out seedlings in rough holes made with a stick or peg. Also termed dibbling if done with a specially adapted tool such as a dibble. Plantation au bâton
Digital model Computer-based representation of a mathematical model describing natural phenomena. These models use complex equations to perform essentially mathematical simulations of natural phenomena. They are used to study and test hypotheses about tides, climate change, the changes in an insect population or a forest, and so on. Modèles numériques
Disease Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants. Maladie
Disease Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin. Maladie
Draft horse A large, strong, heavily built horse used for hauling heavy loads, pulling a plough, etc. Cheval de trait
Drainage Hydrology/engineering: The process of removal of water from soil, particularly by surface runoff and subsurface percolation and artificially by measures for hastening removal, e.g., by ditching. Drainage
Duff layer A general term referring to the litter and humus layers of the forest floor. Litière
Ecosystem The sum of the plants, animals, environmental influences, and their interactions within a particular habitat. Écosystème
Ecosystem integrity The quality of a natural unmanaged or managed ecosystem in which the natural ecological processes sustain the function, composition and structure of the system. Intégrité d’un écosystème
Ecotype A race (provenance) adapted to the selective action of a particular environment. Ecotypes are described in terms of the primary environmental influence, e.g., climatic or edaphic. Écotype
Emissions Waste substances released into the air or water. Émissions
Endangered species Species that are threatened with imminent extinction; includes species whose numbers or habitats have been reduced to critical levels. Espèce en voie de disparition
Environmental assessment A process designed to contribute pertinent environmental information to the decision-making process of forest management or other natural resource projects and programs. Évaluation environnementale
Establishment The process of developing a crop to the stage at which the young trees may be considered established, i.e., safe from juvenile mortality and no longer in need of special protection or special tending, but only routine cleaning and thinning. Établissement
Establishment period The time elapsing between the initiation of a new crop and its establishment. Période d’implantation
Ethos The totality of the distinctive ways of living that separate one group of people from another, especially their values. Éthos
Eutrophication The enrichment of water by nutrients, especially compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus, that will accelerate the growth of algae and higher forms of plant life. This enrichment may interfere with the normal ecological balance of the receiving waters. Eutrophisation
Even-aged system Silvicultural systems in which stands have an even-aged structure, e.g., clearcutting method, coppice method, seed-tree method. Régime équienne
Extirpated species Refers to the local extinction of a species that is no longer found in a locality or country, but exists elsewhere in the world. Espèce disparue
Featured-species management A type of wildlife management that does not attempt to manage for all species, but selects a few species of particular concern or interest (for example, big game species or endangered species) and aims management programs at them. With respect to habitat, it is generally assumed that providing habitat for these species provides habitat for other species as well. Gestion axée sur les espèces
Fire hazard reduction Any treatment of fuels that reduces the threat of ignition and spread of fire. Réduction du risque d’incendie
Fire weather index The fire weather index (FWI) is part of an approach that Canadian meteorologists use to estimate the wildfire risk in forest regions. Calculation of the index components is based on consecutive daily observations of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and 24-hour rainfall. Indice forêt-météo
Flora A general term for all forms of plant life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Flore
Forest Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern. Forêt
Forest Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. Forêt
Forest hygiene Care for the health of the forest, particularly by sanitation cutting. Hygiène sylvicole
Forest land Land primarily intended for growing, or currently supporting, forest. It includes land not now forested (for example, clearcut lands and northern lands that are forested but not intended for any commercial forestry use) and plantations. Terres forestières
Forest management unit An area of forest land managed as a unit for fiber production and other renewable resources. This unit can be the entire province or territory, a provincial forest management subdivision, an industrial timber limit, etc. Unité d’aménagement forestier
Forest model A computer-based simulation that, within definable parameters, forecasts the development of a forest. Modèle de forêt
Forest practices Any activities that enhance or recover forest growth or harvest yield (e.g., site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.), and road construction or reconstruction within forest lands. Pratiques forestières
Forest regions classification A process of delineating large geographic areas according to landform and climate, associated with broad variations in overall forest composition. Classification des régions forestières
Forest site see forest site type Site forestier
Forest site classification Grouping of forest sites using either the composition or the productivity of the vegetation as well as soil and topographic position. Classification de station forestière
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) An international certification and labelling system under which forests are certified against strict environmental and social standards, and fibre from certified forests is tracked from the forest to consumers. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Forest type A group of forested areas or stands of similar composition; forest types are usually separated and identified by species composition and often by height and crown closure classes. Type forestier
Forest value chain The "chain" of steps in forestry and the manufacturing of forest products from seed to final consumer product. Chaîne de valeur forestière
Forested tundra Subarea of the vast boreal zone characterized by a mosaic of stands of variable density and by tundra consisting mainly of shrubs and lichens. This plant formation is located at the tree line, and marks the division between the boreal zone and the arctic zone. Toundra forestière
Forestry Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. Foresterie
Forestry practices Any activity that is carried out on forest land to facilitate the use of forest resources, including, but not limited to, timber harvesting, road construction, silviculture, grazing, recreation, pest control and wildfire suppression. Pratiques forestières
Formation All the operations contributing to the creation of a new forest cover up to the stage where it is considered established. Période d’établissement
Fuel plantation syn. fuelwood plantation Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning. Plantation énergétique
Functional genomics Predicting biological function of genes and proteins from their primary sequence. Génomique fonctionnelle
Gene flow The movement of alleles among interbreeding individuals belonging to different populations, by means of seed or pollen dispersal or the migration of individuals. Flux génique
Geographic Information System (GIS) An organized collection of computer hardware, software and geographic data designed for capturing, storing, updating, manipulating, analyzing and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. Système d'information géographique (SIG)
Global Positioning System (GPS) A system of satellites and receiving devices used to compute positions on the Earth. Système de positionnement global (GPS)
Global warming The rise in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect. Réchauffement climatique
Granite bedrock Geological formation that dates back more than 450 million years and is characterized by vast expanses of granite of volcanic origin. The Canadian Shield is made up largely of granite bedrock. Since granite has little capacity to neutralize acid rain, the forest ecosystems in these regions are fairly vulnerable to the effects of acid deposition. Assise granitique
Greenhouse effect The warming of the Earth's atmosphere caused by increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other gases in the air, which trap the sun's heat within the atmosphere. Effet de serre
Greenhouse gas (GHG) A gas—such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and ozone—that is transparent to incoming solar radiation but less so to the infrared radiation reflected back by the Earth’s surface, hence trapping part of the solar energy and warming the planet’s surface enough to sustain life. The build-up of greenhouse gases from industrial activities enhances the natural “greenhouse effect” and is partly responsible for global warming. Gaz à effet de serre (GES)
Greenhouse gas sinks Any process, activity or mechanism that removes greenhouse gases or their precursors from the atmosphere. The principal natural mechanism is photosynthesis. Puits de gaz à effet de serre
Greenhouse gas source Any process or activity (for example, forest fires or conversion of forest land to agricultural or urban uses) that releases greenhouse gases or precursors of those gases into the atmosphere. As trees and forest products decompose or burn, they release carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. Source de gaz à effet de serre
Group planting Setting out young trees in groups. Plantation par bouquets
Guild management A method of management by which species are assembled into groups based on similarities in their habitat requirements. One species is selected to indicate the group; conserving the habitat of that particular species ensures the conservation of other members of the guild. Gestion par association
Habitat The environment in which a population or individual lives; includes not only the place where a species is found, but also the particular characteristics of the place (for example, climate or the availability of suitable food and shelter) that make it especially well suited to meet the life cycle needs of that species. Habitat
Hardwood(s) (broad-leaved trees) Trees whose leaves are not persistent and fall off at the end of a defined growing season or during a period of temperature or moisture stress. This is the predominant tree type in deciduous forests. Also refers to the wood produced by these trees. Feuillus (arbres à feuilles caduques)
Herbicide Any chemical preparation used to kill or inhibit the growth of forbs, grasses, woody plants, and their seeds. Herbicide
Heritage forest A forest managed to harvest forest products and to sustain the natural system, including its bioproductivity, biotic and abiotic diversity. Modern technology, equipment and methods may be used to harvest, restock and tend the forest, with an emphasis on natural restocking, supplemented with artificial restocking of appropriate endemic species. Forêt patrimoniale
High forest Crops and stands of trees, generally of seedling origin, that normally develop a high closed canopy. A term originally used to differentiate the natural, essentially seedling forest of long rotation from the artificial. Futaie
High grading A partial harvest removing only the most valuable species, or trees of desirable size and quality, without regard for the condition of the residual stand. Écrémage
High-forest systems Silvicultural systems in which the crops are normally of seedling origin, natural and/or artificial, and the rotation is, traditionally at least, long. Régime de la futaie
High-forest-with-reserves system An accessory system in which selected trees of the old crop, scattered or in groups, are retained after regeneration is completed, for the whole or a part of the next rotation. Futaie avec sur-réserves
Hole planting Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole or pit. Roots separated on either side of a wedge or saddle of earth left in situ when the hole was dug is termed saddle planting. Plantation sur potets
Holistic approach Broad brush approach based on a theory according to which a whole cannot be analyzed without considering the sum of its parts or reduced to discrete elements. Approche globale
Impeder An individual of any value actually impeding the development of another individual of higher grade. Inhibiteur
Integrated pest management The use of a mix of techniques and/or strategies to control pests, as opposed to the application of a single method. Lutte intégrée contre les ravageurs
Integrated resource management A holistic approach to resource management that entails the management of two or more resources (for example, water, soil, timber, pasture, wildlife, and recreation) and that integrates the values of the community into the design of policies or projects to use and sustain these resources in perpetuity. Gestion intégrée des ressources
Intensive silviculture Application of cultural measures which, in addition to simply maintaining the forest cover, will allow an increase in the value or volume of the cut. Sylviculture intensive
Interplanting Planting young trees among existing natural regeneration or previously planted trees of similar age. Plantation intercalaire
Inventory (forest) A survey of a forest area to determine data such as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting. Inventaire forestier
Irregular stocking see stocking: partially stocked Matériel relatif irrégulier
L-notch planting Special form of slit planting involving two slits at right angles with the seedling placed at the apex of the L. plantation avec fentes en L
Landscape Areas of land that are distinguished by differences in landforms, vegetation, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Paysage
Litter Uppermost layer of organic debris on a forest floor. Litière
Logging damage General term comprising wounds resulting from cutting, breakage, or crushing of trees that resulted from the felling and the removal of trees designated for cutting. May also include scoring of site and soil leading to exposure Dommage de coupe
Main crop In regular crops or stands, that portion of the growing stock retained after an intermediate cutting. Peuplement principal
Management plan A predetermined course of action and direction to achieve a set of results, usually specified as goals, objectives and policies. Plan d'aménagement
Mechanical planting Setting out young trees by means of a machine specially designed for this operation. Plantation mécanique
Megatonne (MT) One million tonnes. Greenhouse gas emissions are often measured in megatonnes. Mégatonne (MT)
Mist forest A forest of high elevation that occurs along the foggy windward shores of continents and islands. Forêt de brouillard
Mixed stand A stand composed of two or more species in which less than 80% of trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species. The threshold in Manitoba and New Brunswick is 75%. cf. pure stand Mélangé
Mixedwoods Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae that are substantially intermingled in stands. Peuplement mixte
Model forest A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis. Forêt modèle
Monoculture 1. General: Cultivation of a single crop or product without using the land for other purposes. 2. Biology: Extensive areas of land occupied or dominated by plant species that are closely related genetically. Monoculture
Montréal Criteria and Indicators Process This global initiative was so named because the first meeting sponsored by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe was held in Montreal. Currently, 12 countries representing 90% of the world's boreal and temperate forests have agreed to collaborate to develop national C&I for the conservation and sustainable management of all boreal and temperate forests. Processus de Montréal sur les critères et les indicateurs
Mortality Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting. Mortalité
Mound planting Setting out young trees on raised microsites. Plantation sur butte
National forest strategy An overarching national vision and framework for Canada’s forests developed by the Council of Canadian Forest Ministers. The first strategy appeared in 1981. Stratégie nationale sur la forêt
Natural regeneration Renewal of a tree crop by natural seeding, sprouting, suckering, or layering. Régénération naturelle
Nest planting Setting out a number of seedlings or seeds close together in a prepared hole, pit, or spot. Plantation en nids
New forestry A forest management philosophy that attempts to retain characteristics of old-growth stands in managed stands. Nouvelle foresterie
Non-timber value A value within the forest other than timber that includes, but is not limited to, biological diversity, fisheries, wildlife, minerals, water quality and quantity, recreation and tourism, cultural heritage values, and wilderness and aesthetic values. Valeurs non ligneuses
Nutrients Mineral or organic substances (elements or chemical compounds) that plants and animals require for normal growth and activity. Plants and trees obtain nutrients primarily from the soil by absorbing them through their roots. Nutriments
Old growth A stand of mature or overmature trees relatively uninfluenced by human activity. Première venue, de
Old-growth forest An old growth forest differs significantly from younger stands in structure, ecological function and species composition with respect to canopy closure, age class structure, accumulation of woody debris and the presence of species and functional processes that are representative of the potential natural community. Forêt anciennne / vieille forêt
Open forest Proposed name for the natural forest commonly found in northern Canada. This forest is a mixture of wetlands and small trees, occasionally interspersed with highly productive forests. Forêts claires
Opening up Considerable reduction of canopy density, e.g., by lopping, felling, or herbicidal treatment of selected trees, or naturally through pests, disease, or drought mortality. Ouverture du couvert
Overmature In even-aged management, those trees or stands past the mature stage. Suranné
Ozone layer A form of oxygen (O3) formed naturally in the upper atmosphere by a photochemical reaction with solar ultraviolet radiation and a major agent in the formation of smog. Couche d'ozone
Paradigm A set of thoughts, perceptions and values that form particular vision of reality. Paradigme
Pathogen A microscopic organism or virus directly capable of causing disease. see thinning: precommercial. Pathogène
Pathogenic A parasitic organism directly capable of causing disease. Pathogène
Pathology The study of disease. Pathologie
Pathology Study of diseases and the effects they have on plants. Pathologie
Pedology Scientific discipline that is concerned with all aspects of soils. Pédologie
Pest Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs. Ravageur
Pictograph An ancient or prehistoric drawing or painting on a rock wall. Pictogramme
Pit planting Setting out young trees in small depressions, natural or excavated, with a view to collecting and conserving moisture. Plantation sur trous
Plain A relatively large, level, featureless topographic surface. Plaine
Plantation A stand of trees that has been grown through direct seeding or by planting seedlings. Plantation
Plantation forest Forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation which are either of introduced species (all planted stands) or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing. Plantation forestière
Plantation forestry Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand. Foresterie de plantation
Planting Establishing a forest by setting out seedlings, transplants, or cuttings in an area. Plantation
Plus stand A stand containing a preponderance of good phenotypes, but not necessarily plus trees. Peuplement plus
Pocket of infection Area in a stand or plantation where a disease originated. Foyers d'infection
Pollard system The systematic harvest cutting of pollard shoots, with due provision for replacing exhausted or defective pollards. Taillis sur têtards
Polyculture The simultaneous cultivation of a number of crops as opposed to stands composed of a single species. Polyculture
Pot planting Setting out young trees in pot-shaped receptacles having a closed or only perforated end and made of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en pot
Productivity The rate of production of wood of given specifications, by volume or weight, for a given area. cf. site capability Productivité
Protected area A geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives. Zone / aire protégée
Protection forest All forest land managed primarily to exert beneficial influence on soil, water, landscape, or for any other purpose when production of merchantable timber, if any, is incidental. Forêt de protection
Protocol A legally binding sub-agreement of a framework convention or treaty. Protocole
Quadrat A small, clearly demarcated sample area of known size on which observations are made. Quadrat
Quincunx planting Setting out four young trees to form the corners of a square with a fifth tree at its center. Plantation en quinconces
Reforestation syn. reafforestation Successful renewal of a forest crop by planting or direct seeding. Création de forêt
Regeneration Renewal of a forest crop by natural, artificial, or vegetative (regrowth) means. Also the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high. Régénération
Regeneration area The area selected, normally in a working plan or working scheme, for regeneration generally with a specified period of time in view. Quartier de régénération
Regeneration initiation The year in which the new crop is deemed to be started at an acceptable stocking level, whether by planting, natural or artificial seeding, or by vegetative means. Début de la régénération
Regeneration period The time between the initial regeneration cut and the successful reestablishment of a stand by natural or artificial means. Période de régénération
Regeneration survey An inventory of the quantity and quality of regeneration over a given area. Relevé de la régénération
Resilience The capacity of a community or ecosystem to maintain or regain normal function and development following disturbance. Résilience
Revenue from goods manufactured Revenue from the sale of goods manufactured using materials owned by the establishment as well as from repair work, manufacturing service charges and work contracted to others. Revenus des biens fabriqués
Ridge planting Setting out young trees on a long, narrow crest of excavated soil, generally on a slice thrown up by a plough. Plantation sur bourrelet
Riparian forest At a large scale, it is the band of forest that has a significant influence on a stream ecosystem or is significantly affected by the stream. At a smaller scale, it is the forest at the immediate water’s edge, where some specialized plants and animals form a distinct community. Forêt riveraine
Risk assessment A quantitative and qualitative approach to determining the hazardous capacity of a new product. This involves the identification and characterization of hazards, an assessment of exposure to the product, and a final risk characterization of the product. Évaluation des risques
Rotation The planned number of years between the formation or regeneration of a crop or stand and its final cutting at a specified stage or maturity. Révolution
Rust Disease caused by a fungus that is parasitic on higher plants and may go through five different developmental stages, usually involving hosts. Following infection, orange pustules appear, possibly followed by premature shedding of foliage, witches' brooms or cankers. Rouille
Science (forest) The study of the material universe or physical reality in order to understand it. This is done by making observations and collecting data about natural events and conditions, then organizing and explaining them with hypotheses, theories, models, laws and principles. Science forestière
Science and technology (S&T) Systematic activities that are closely concerned with the generation, advancement, dissemination and application of scientific and technical knowledge in all fields of science and technology, including such activities as research and development (R&D), scientific and technical education and training, and scientific and technological services. Sciences et technologie (S et T)
Second growth The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest. Seconde venue, de
Second growth forest The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest. Forêt de seconde venue
Secondary succession Process whereby one stand or plant community supplants another; it is triggered by a major disturbance in a forest ecosystem. Successions secondaires
Seeding aerial [ensemencement aérien]: Broadcast seeding of seeds or seed pellets from aircraft. broadcast [ensemencement à la volée]: The sowing of seeds more or less evenly over a whole area. Ensemencement
Selection forest Forest treated and managed under the selection system. Forêt jardinée
Shipment Includes all shipping of goods within or outside Canada. Excludes product inventories. Livraison
Silvics The study of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands, with particular reference to locality factors as a basis of silviculture. Écologie forestière
Silvicultural system A process that applies silvicultural practices, including tending (thinning, pruning, etc.), harvesting, and replacement, to a stand in order to produce a crop of timber and other forest products. Note: the system is named by the cutting Régime sylvicole
Silviculture Practices aimed at ensuring wise harvesting of forest resources : conservation, regeneration, reforestation, cutting, etc. Sylviculture
Silviculture The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands to achieve the objectives of management. Sylviculture
Simple coppice system A coppice system in which the crop is clearcut and regenerated by stool shoots, stump sprouts, or root suckers, giving even-aged stands; rotation is relatively short. Taillis simple
Site A land area based on its climatic, physiographic, edaphic, and biotic factors that determine its suitability and productivity for particular species and silvicultural alternatives. Site
Site capability The mean annual increment in merchantable volume which can be expected for a forest area, assuming it is fully stocked by one or more species best adapted to the site, at or near rotation age. Expressed in cubic metres per he Potentiel de station
Site class Any interval into which the site index range is divided for purposes of classification and use. Classe de station
Site classification Application of analytical techniques based on macroclimate, soil, land form, and vegetation, to predict yield. Classification de station
Site factor An ecological term referring to a physical or biological parameter used to describe and distinguish sites. Facteur de station
Site index An expression of forest site quality based on the height, at a specified age, of dominant and codominant trees in a stand. May be grouped into site classes. Expressed in metres. Usually refers to a particular species. Indice de station
Site quality The productive capacity of a site; usually expressed as volume production of a given species per unit area (cubic metres per hectare) or per unit of time (cubic metres per year). Qualité de station
Slash The residue left on the ground after felling and tending and/or accumulating there as a result of storm, fire, girdling, or treatment with herbicide. It includes unutilized logs, uprooted stumps, broken or uprooted stems. Rémanents
Slit planting Prying open a cut made by a spade, mattock, or planting bar (termed bar planting), inserting a young tree, then closing the cut on the latter by pressure. Plantation en fente
Smog Mixture of polluting particles and water drops in the atmosphere that forms a thick fog in industrial regions. Smog
Softwood(s) Cone-bearing trees with needles or scale-like leaves. This is the predominant tree type in coniferous forests. Also refers to the wood produced by these trees. Résineux
Spacing The distance between trees in a plantation, a thinned stand, or a natural stand. v: see thinning: spacing Espacement
Spot planting Setting out young trees in small, prepared patches. Plantation sur placeaux
Stagnant Describes condition of stands whose growth and development have all but ceased due to poor site and/or excessive stocking. Bloqué
Stand A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas, thus forming a silvicultural or management entity. Peuplement
Stand density A quantitative measurement of tree stocking, expressed in terms of number of trees, total basal area, or volume, per unit of area. More precisely, a measure of the degree of crowding of trees within a stand. Densité de peuplement
Stand model A mathematical model that forecasts the development of a forest stand, usually in terms of mean stand attributes, e.g., mean diameter, height. Modèle de peuplement
Stand table A summary table showing the number of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. The data may also be presented in the form of a frequency distribution of diameter classes. Table de peuplement
Stewardship The science, art and skill of responsible and accountable management of resources. Intendance
Stock table A summary table showing the volume of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. Table de stock
Stocked forest land Land supporting tree growth. In this context, tree growth includes seedlings and saplings. Terrain forestier boisé
Stocked quadrat In regeneration surveys, a quadrat having at least one live tree seedling or regrowth. The criteria for what constitutes a "stocked" area vary with species, site, country, etc. Parcelle régénérée
Stocking A qualitative expression of the adequacy of tree cover on an area, in terms of crown closure, number of trees, basal area, or volume, in relation to a preestablished norm. Densité relative
Stocking guide Reference level for the optimum proportion of an area actually occupied by trees, expressed in terms of stocked quadrats or percentage of canopy closure. Guide de stocking
Storied high forest A crop of trees in which the canopy can be differentiated into one or more layers, the dominant species in natural forest generally differing in each layer. Futaie pluriétagée
Strip cropping Crop planting in which strips of heavy-rooted plants are alternated with loose-rooted plants which serve as barriers to wind and water erosion. Plantation en lisières
Strip planting Setting trees, generally in two or more parallel lines, in a long narrow area of land that has been wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en bandes
Structure The distribution of trees in a stand or group by age, size, or crown classes (e.g., all-aged, even-aged, uneven-aged, regular, and irregular structures). Structure
Stumpage fee The fee paid by an individual or company for the timber they harvest from public forests or privately owned forest land. Droit de coupe
Substantial equivalence A principle for safety assessment that compares a genetically modified product to a traditional non-modified product of the same species with a long history of safe use. A genetically modified product is substantially equivalent to the non-modified one if it is as safe to the environment and human health. Équivalence en substance
Succession The gradual supplanting of one community of plants by another, the sequence of communities being termed a sere and each stage seral. Succession
Sustainability The capacity of forests, ranging from stands to ecoregions, to maintain their health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity, in the long run, in the context of human activity and use. The concept of producing a biological resource under management practices that ensure replacement of the part harvested, by regrowth or reproduction, before another harvest occurs. Durabilité
Sustainable development Sustainable development in forestry expands the principle of sustained timber yield by including wildlife and fish habitats, watersheds and hydrological cycles, as well as gene pools and species diversity. Développement durable
Sustainable forest development The development of forests to meet current needs without prejudice to their future productivity, ecological diversity or capacity for regeneration. Développement durable des forêts
Sustainable forestry Management of forested area in order to provide wood products in perpetuity, soil and watershed integrity, persistence of most native species and maintenance of highly sensitive species or suitable conditions. Foresterie durable
Sustainable Forestry Initiative A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality. Sustainable Forestry Initiative
Sustained yield The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management. Rendement soutenu
Sustained-yield forestry The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management. Foresterie à rendement soutenu
T-notching see slit planting Bêchage en T
Taiga Subarea of the extensive boreal zone characterized by open coniferous forest with lichens. Taïga
Taungya plantation The raising of a forest crop in conjunction with a temporary agricultural crop. Plantation en taungya
Temperate forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, tropical forest). The woodland of rather mild climatic areas; composed mainly of deciduous trees. Forêt tempérée
Thinning series Two or more adjacent forest plots that are thinned differently (e.g., to different thinning grades), essentially so as to compare the increment of individual stems. Groupe d’éclaircies comparées
Threatened species A species that is likely to become endangered in Canada if the factors affecting its vulnerability are not reversed. Espèce menacée
Treaty A legally binding agreement, often between two parties. Traité
Tree class Any class into which the trees forming a crop or stand may be divided for a variety of purposes. Classe d’arbre
Trench planting Setting out young trees in a shallow trench or a continuous slit. Plantation en sillon
Tube planting Setting out young trees in narrow, open-ended cylinders of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or into which they have been transplanted. Plantation de semis en tube
Underplanting Planting young trees under the canopy of an existing stand. Plantation en sous-étage
Understory protection Removal of mature trees while damage to the understory is kept to a minimum. Protection du sous-étage
Uneven-aged Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which intermingling trees differ markedly in age. The differences in age permitted in an uneven-aged stand are usually greater than 10-20 years. Inéquienne
Uneven-aged system A silvicultural system in which stands have an uneven-aged structure. Régime inéquienne
Upper Canada The predecessor of modern Ontario, came into existence when the British Parliament passed the Constitutional Act, 1791, dividing the old province of Québec into lower Canada and Upper Canada along the present-day Quebec-Ontario boundary. Haut-Canada
Urban forest The trees, forests, and associated organisms that grow near buildings and in gardens, green spaces, parks, and golf courses located in village, town, suburban, and urban areas. Forêt urbaine
Vertical structure The structure formed by different layers of vegetation in a forest. Structure verticale
Vigor class Assumption of the health of a tree based on observation of the foliage. Classe de vigueur
Virgin forest Natural forest, the development of which has been virtually uninfluenced by modern human activity. Forêt vierge
Volunteer growth Natural regeneration following site preparation and seeding or planting that could either supplement or completely obscure the trees being planted or seeded on the area. Régénération subséquente
Vulnerable species A species that is considered at risk because it exists in low numbers or in restricted ranges, due to loss of habitat or other factors. Espèce vulnérable
Wages and salaries The earnings, in cash or in kind, of Canadian residents for work performed before deduction of income taxes and contributions to pension funds, unemployment insurance and other social insurance schemes. Salaires et traitements
Wildland Uncultivated land other than fallow. Land currently little influenced by human activity. Friche
Wilt Drying out, loss of colour and shape of leaves, then twigs and branches, caused by a lack of water or the presence of toxins. Flétrissement
Windrow planting Planting between the two lanes created in windrowing. Plantation sur entrandain
Working group An aggregate of forest stands, or forest stand and forest sites, which are grouped for the purpose of applying a common set of silvicultural treatments (also called operational group). Section d’aménagement
Xylophagous That feeds on wood. Lignivore
Yield table Tables and graphs illustrating volumes per hectare of stands at a specific age. normal yield table [table de rendement normal]: Estimated stand volume per age class at normal stocking. Table de rendement
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