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Tree diseases

Term Definition French
Abiotic stress Stress induced by the non-living component of the environment. Stress abiotique
Adjuvant An additive used in pesticide spray formulations which enhances adherence to plants. Adjuvant
Advance regeneration Young trees under existing stands capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation. Régénération préexistante
Anthracnose Foliar disease characterized by reduced growth of some portions of the lobes and by the development of necrotic lesions between the veins and on the leaf margins; these lesions may spread to the entire leaf and then the buds and, in extreme cases, the twigs. Anthracnose
Antibiotic Chemical substance capable of preventing the development of micro-organisms. Antibiotique
Antifungal Capable of killing fungi or impeding their development. Antifongique
Artificial regeneration Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings. Régénération artificielle
Atrophied Describes an organ or part of a body that is reduced in size, rudimentary. Atrophié
Autotroph An organism capable of synthesizing the organic nutrients it needs from the mineral compounds present in nature. Plants and many bacteria are autotrophs or producers. Autotrophs do not need to obtain their nutrients from other living organisms. By contrast, heterotrophs cannot make their own food and so they feed on the tissues of other organisms. Organisme autotrophe
Banding Applying a chemical or other substance to the bole of a tree in the form of a band. Cerclage
Basal injection A treatment consisting of forcing a liquid or an encapsulated herbicide into the basal portion of a tree. Injection à la base de la tige
Bioassay A technique for determining the effectiveness of a substance by measuring its effects on animals, tissues or organisms and comparing them to the effects of a standard preparation. Bioessai
Biodiversity The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity). Biodiversité
Biological pest control methods The application of whole organisms or portions of organisms as biologically sound alternatives to broad-spectrum chemical pesticides. Méthodes de lutte biologique contre les ravageurs
Biopesticide A pesticide derived from natural sources such as fungi and bacteria or created to closely resemble or be identical to a chemical produced in nature such as a pheromone. Typically a biopesticide is target-specific and has little or no impact on non-target organisms and the environment. Biopesticide
Blade Thin, flat part of a leaf. Limbe
Blister Circular bulge caused by the excessive growth of cells in part of a leaf, often with fungal cells mixed in. Cloque
Chromosome A single DNA molecule encoding a portion or all of a living organism’s genetic information; threadlike and located in the cell’s nucleus in higher organisms, circular in bacteria. Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes. Chromosome
Class Taxonomic level between Phyllum and Order. Eg, class Insecta Classe
Claviform Club-shaped. Claviforme
Contained root A root that does not elongate beyond the confines of the original rooting volume within a container, even when outplanted with the container removed. Racine contenue
Crown pruning 1. Natural: Removal or decadence of lateral live crown by wind, abrasion, reduced light, etc. 2. Cultural: Mechanical removal of branch ends to shape crowns for aesthetic appeal, e.g., for Christmas trees, bonsai, etc. Taille en cime
Deadwood Timber produced from dead standing trees. More commonly, timber in dead standing trees. Bois mort
Decomposers Micro-organisms that break down, digest and metabolize organic wastes, such as dead leaves, dropped fruits, wood and dead animals. Décomposeurs
Defoliation The removal of all or most of a plant’s leaves by natural disturbance agents (e.g., insects) or through the actions of humans (e.g., the application of herbicides). Défoliation
Discoloration Change in the normal colour of wood following infection by a micro-organism. Coloration
Disease Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants. Maladie
Disease Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin. Maladie
Dry packing In tree injection, a method of banding that uses a tight waterproof bandage packed with a chemical, either dry or in paste form. Injection à sec
Duff layer A general term referring to the litter and humus layers of the forest floor. Litière
Ectoparasite External parasite that lives permanently on the body of a vertebrate or in accessible openings, such as the nose or ears. They are obligate parasites during part of or their entire life cycle. This type of parasite lives on the outside of its host's body without entering it or killing it. Ectoparasite
Edge habitat A loosely defined type of habitat that occurs at the boundary between two different habitat types. Typically, edge habitats share characteristics with both adjacent habitat types and have particular transitional characteristics that are important to wildlife. Habitat de lisière
Endangered species Species that are threatened with imminent extinction; includes species whose numbers or habitats have been reduced to critical levels. Espèce en voie de disparition
Endoparasitoid Organism that lives inside and feeds on a single host, which dies after the parasitoid has completed its larval development. Endoparasitoïde
Epicormic shoot syn. sprout A shoot arising from a dormant or adventitious bud on the stem or branch of a woody plant. Pousse adventive
Extirpated species Refers to the local extinction of a species that is no longer found in a locality or country, but exists elsewhere in the world. Espèce disparue
Field nursery A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies. Pépinière volante
Forest Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern. Forêt
Forest Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. Forêt
Forest hygiene Care for the health of the forest, particularly by sanitation cutting. Hygiène sylvicole
Forestry Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. Foresterie
Fungivorous Feeding on fungi. Fongivore
Gall-forming Relates to an organism that induces the formation of galls and feeds on their tissues. Galligène
Genetically modified organism (GMO) An organism that has had its DNA sequence altered through genetic engineering, a natural process, or the action of mutagens. Organisme génétiquement modifié (OGM)
Geophilous Living in or on the ground. Géophile
Habitat The environment in which a population or individual lives; includes not only the place where a species is found, but also the particular characteristics of the place (for example, climate or the availability of suitable food and shelter) that make it especially well suited to meet the life cycle needs of that species. Habitat
Host Organism harbouring a parasite. Hôte
Humicolous Living in or on humus or leaf litter. Humicole
Hybrid Plant obtained by crossing two genetically dissimilar parent plants. Hybride
Hybrid The offspring of genetically different parents (usually refers to crosses between two species). Hybride
Hybridization Sexual reproduction using genetically distinct parents, that is, belonging to different populations, varieties, or species. Hybridation
Hyperparasite Parasitic organism that lives off of another parasite. Hyperparasite
Hyperparasitoid Organism that attacks and lives on another parasitoid. Hyperparasitoïde
Intermediate treatments Any treatment in a stand during that portion of the rotation not included in the final harvest or regeneration period. cf. tending Traitement intermédiaire
J-root A root, especially a seedling tap root, having a sharp bend greater than 90, shaped like a J. Frequently introduced by inappropriate planting. Racine en J
Lignicolous Growing in or on wood. Lignicole
Litter Uppermost layer of organic debris on a forest floor. Litière
Live-crown ratio A rough but convenient index of the ability of a tree's crown to nourish the remaining part of the tree; it is the percentage of length of stem having living branches. L-notch planting [plantation avec fentes en L. Taux de cime vivante
Living modified organism (LMO) As defined in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, a living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology. Organisme vivant modifié (OVM)
Lop and top The branches and tops cut from a tree, generally once felled or fallen. Résidus d’ébranchage-façonnage
Micro-organism A microscopic one or multi-celled organism, such as a bacterium, virus, yeast, alga, fungus and protozoan. Micro-organisme
Micro-organisms Living organisms (bacteria, microbes, yeasts) that can be seen only with a microscope. Micro-organisms that are likely to cause disease in other living organisms are called pathogens. Micro-organismes
Microbe See microorganism. Microbe
Microfauna Soil-dwelling micro-organisms (animals) that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Synonym: soil fauna. Microfaune
Microorganism A general term for a unicellular or multicellular microscopic organism. Classifications of microorganisms include algae, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Microorganisme
Microsite The ultimate unit of the habitat, i.e., the specific spot occupied by an individual organism. By extension, the more or less specialized relationships existing between an organism and its environment. Niche (écologique)
Model forest A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis. Forêt modèle
Monophagous Organism that feeds on a single host, whether plant or animal. Monophage
Mortality Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting. Mortalité
Mutagens Agents that cause a change in the DNA sequence of a cell. These include chemicals, X-rays, and ultraviolet light. Mutagènes
Mutation A change to the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome; may be expressed or unexpressed by the cell. If a mutation occurs in a gene, it changes the structure, function, or expression of the protein produced. Mutation
Mycetophagous Feeding on fungi Mycétophage
Mycophagous Feeding on fungi. Mycophage
Native (indigenous) A species that occurs naturally in an area. Indigène
Natural regeneration Renewal of a tree crop by natural seeding, sprouting, suckering, or layering. Régénération naturelle
Necrophagous Feeding on dead or decomposing animal matter. Nécrophage
Needle cast Reddening or browning of needles, sometimes leading to premature shedding of foliage. Rouge
New forestry A forest management philosophy that attempts to retain characteristics of old-growth stands in managed stands. Nouvelle foresterie
Nodule Globulose or elongated mass formed by certain fungi or a mixture of plant and fungal tissues. Nodule
Nursery An area set aside for the raising of young trees mainly for planting out. Temporary nurseries, particularly those formed beneath a high canopy of large trees, may be termed bush nurseries. cf. field nursery Pépinière
Nursery bed One of the specially prepared plots in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put. Planche
Occlusion The process of healing of cut branch stubs by the cambium of the surrounding stem surface. Occlusion
Order Taxonomic level between Class and Family. In insects, for example, classification in orders is based primarily on wing shape. Ordre
Organ Group of tissues organized to perform a distinct function. Organe
Outplant A seedling, transplant, or cutting ready to be established on an area. Plant sur le terrain
Ovoid Egg shaped. Ovoïde
Parasite Organism that lives on or in and feeds on a living plant or animal (host). The parasite gradually weakens the host and may or may not kill it. Parasite
Parasitoid An organism that lives at the expense of another (its host); impedes its growth and eventually kills it. Insect parasitoids, which are often very tiny, attack a single organism (plant or animal); from which they derive everything they need for their own growth and reproduction. One way a parasitoid does this is by laying its eggs in the body of the host insect. Parasitoids are being used more and more for biological control of insect pests, thus reducing the need for chemical insecticides. Predators, unlike parasitoids, prey on more than one organism and kill and consume their tissues. Parasitoïde
Particle gun transformation See biolistics. Transformation par canon à particules
Pathogen A microscopic organism or virus directly capable of causing disease. see thinning: precommercial. Pathogène
Pathogenic A parasitic organism directly capable of causing disease. Pathogène
Pathology Study of diseases and the effects they have on plants. Pathologie
Pathology The study of disease. Pathologie
Pelleting Incorporating seed in a matrix of fungicide, insecticide, repellent, coloring material or inert carrier, or any combination of these, so as to form a small ball termed a seed pellet. Enrobage
Pest Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs. Ravageur
Pesticide Any preparation used to control populations of injurious organisms, plant or animal. Pesticide
Phyllophagous Feeding on the leaves of plants. Phyllophage
Phyllum Taxonomic level between Kingdom and Class. Eg, phyllum Arthropoda composed of organisms with a segmented body. The body wall is more or less hardened and forms an exoskeleton. Embranchement
Phytophagous Refers to organisms that feed on plants. Phytophage
Plantation forestry Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand. Foresterie de plantation
Pocket of infection Area in a stand or plantation where a disease originated. Foyers d'infection
Pollinivorous Feeding on pollen. Pollinivore
Polyphagous Feeding on several plant or animal species. Organism that develops on more than one host, eg, the gypsy moth, a polyphagous caterpillar feeds on both deciduous and coniferous trees. Polyphage
Population A group that includes all possible members of a species in a territory at a given time. Population
Race A population that exists within a species and exhibits genetic characteristics distinct from those of the other populations. It is usually an interbreeding unit. Race
Radicicolous Living on or in roots. A parasite of roots. Radicicole
Regeneration Renewal of a forest crop by natural, artificial, or vegetative (regrowth) means. Also the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high. Régénération
Root Part of the tree that anchors it and absorbs nutrients from the soil. Racine
Root rot Decomposition of the woody tissue in roots causing the death of the cambium or bark of the roots, thus girdling the trees at the root collar and causing their death. Pourridié
Root trimming The trimming of roots by a cutting tool after lifting and prior to outplanting. Taille des racines
Root-feeding Feeding on the roots of plants. Radicivore
Root-to-shoot ratio The total mass or volume of the plant root system divided by the total mass or volume of the shoot system, usually on an oven-dry basis. Rapport système racinaire/système foliacé
Rust Disease caused by a fungus that is parasitic on higher plants and may go through five different developmental stages, usually involving hosts. Following infection, orange pustules appear, possibly followed by premature shedding of foliage, witches' brooms or cankers. Rouille
Salvage cutting The exploitation of trees that are dead, dying, or deteriorating (e.g., because overmature or materially damaged by fire, wind, insects, fungi, or other injurious agencies) before their timber becomes economically worthless. Coupe de récupération
Sanitation cutting The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees, essentially to prevent the spread of pests or pathogens and so promote forest hygiene. Coupe d’assainissement
Sanitation measures The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees or their parts, or of vegetation that serves as an alternative host for crop-tree pathogens, to prevent or control the spread of pests or pathogens. Mesures sanitaires
Saprophagous Refers to organisms that feed on decaying or decayed plant or animal matter. Saprophage
Saproxylophagous Refers to an organism that develops in partially decomposed woody debris. Saproxylophage
Saproxylophilous Living on rotting wood. Saproxylophile
Scatophagous Feeding on dung or excrement. Scatophage
Scatophilous Living in association with dung or excrement. Scatophile
Seed orchard A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, etc. Verger à graines
Selection forest Forest treated and managed under the selection system. Forêt jardinée
Seminivorous Feeding on grain or seeds. Séminivore
Species Group of individuals that possess common characteristics and are capable of producing fertile progeny Espèce
Spore Cell or group of cells capable of producing a new organism. Spore
Spore print Deposit of spores released into the air or onto a surface when a fungus cap is placed gills downwards. Sporée
Spot Circular or nearly circular lesions that appear on a leaf blade. They have a central zone of necrotic (dead, brown) tissue colonized by a pathogen; this zone is surrounded by healthy, coloured tissue. Tache
Spreader Any substance, solid or liquid, that, when added to a pesticide, herbicide, liquid fertilizer, or fire retardant, enables it to spread better over the surfaces on which it is deposited. Dispersant
Stump extraction A general term for the process of pulling out stumps by force. Removal of stumps may be done to facilitate scarification or to prevent infection from diseased root systems. Dessouchage
Symbiotic association The living together in intimate association of two dissimilar organisms, so that the cohabitation is mutually beneficial. Association symbiotique
Taxonomy Set of rules governing the classification and naming of species. Taxinomie
Tending Generally, any operation carried out for the benefit of a forest crop or an individual thereof, at any stage of its life; covers operations both on the crop itself, e.g., thinnings and improvement cuttings, and on competing vegetation. Soins culturaux
Terricolous Living in the soil or litter. Terricole
Threatened species A species that is likely to become endangered in Canada if the factors affecting its vulnerability are not reversed. Espèce menacée
Tolerance The ability of an organism or biological process to subsist under a given set of environmental conditions. The range of these under which it can subsist, representing its limits of tolerance, is termed its ecological amplitude. Tolérance
Trait A distinguishable characteristic of an organism. Caractère
Transformation Transfer of foreign DNA into the cell of an organism to change its genetic makeup. This is a natural process for many bacteria. Transformation
Transplant A seedling that has been replanted one or more times in a nursery to improve its size and growth potential characteristics. Also a tree that is moved from one place to another. Plant repiqué
Tree injection The deliberate introduction, by pressure or simple absorption of a chemical -- generally a water-soluble salt in solution -- into the sapstream of a living tree. Injection d’arbres
Tree injector A specially designed tool used to inject a solution into a living tree. Injecteur
Tubular Tube-shaped. Tubulaire
Twig The smallest division of a branch which bears the annual shoot. Rameau
Vesicle Small, bladder-like structure. Vésicule
Vigor class Assumption of the health of a tree based on observation of the foliage. Classe de vigueur
Virulence Measure of a pathogen's ability to multiply in a living organism and harm it. Virulence
Viruses Primitive microorganisms that must infect the living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria in order to replicate. When outside the host cells, viruses adopt a form consisting, most of the time, of a RNA or DNA molecule surrounded by a protein matrix. Virus
Volunteer growth Natural regeneration following site preparation and seeding or planting that could either supplement or completely obscure the trees being planted or seeded on the area. Régénération subséquente
Vulnerable species A species that is considered at risk because it exists in low numbers or in restricted ranges, due to loss of habitat or other factors. Espèce vulnérable
Witches' broom Excessive proliferation of twigs from one location on a branch or several locations close together. The twigs in a broom are erect and compacted. Balai de sorcière
Xylophagous Feeding on woody tissues (wood). Xylophage
Xylophagous That feeds on wood. Lignivore
Xylophilous Growing in or living on wood. Xylophile
Zoophagous Refers to organisms that feed on animals (including other arthropods). Zoophage
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