Canadian Forest Service Publications
Field guide to classify and measure aspen decay and stain. 1995. Hiratsuka, Y.; Stokes, T.; Chakravarty, P.; Morgan, D.J. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, Alberta. Special Report 4.
Issued by: Northern Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 11790
Availability: This is a priced publication
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This field manual describes and illustrates external indicators of decay and stain and other stem abnormalities of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). It describes how to identify, measure, and record internal defect, and how to calculate pulp cull volume. Major types of wood defects include Type A1 and A2 (Phellinus tremulae [Bond.] Bond. & Boriss.), Type B (Armillaria sp.), Type C (Peniophora polygonia [Pers.:Fr.] Bourd. & Galz.), Type D (stain by biotic and abiotic factors), and Type E (stain in stored logs). The use of a wood hardness measuring device (H-Gun) to distinguish between pulpable and nonpulpable Type A1 and A2 decayed wood is also outlined.