Canadian Forest Service Publications
Temperature-dependent development of Zeiraphera canadensis and simulation of its phenology. 1989. Régnière, J.; Turgeon, J.J. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 50: 185-193.
Available from: Laurentian Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 14207
CFS Availability: PDF (request by e-mail)
Available from the Journal's Web site. †
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Diapause requirements of eggs of Zeiraphera canadensis Mutuura and Freeman (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are satisfied by 15 weeks of storage at 0.5°C. Temperatures above 30°C are lethal for this life stage. Temperature-dependent development of larvae fed on white spruce, Picea glauca (Moench) Voss, and of pupae was observed under laboratory conditions. The shortest development times were observed at 28°C. Larvae are tolerant to heat, and developed at 32°C, a lethal temperature for pupae. There was little variation of development rates in all stages of the life cycle, explaining the high degree of phenological synchrony reported in populations of this species. A phenological model was developed and calibrated to simulate the relative abundance of the various immature stages under field conditions. The calibration process suggested that temperature in the microhabitat of eggs may be very close to air temperature, but that temperatures under bud caps where larvae are feeding may rise several degrees above air temperature. For the purposes of planning the timing of survey and control practices, degree-day requirements for 10% egg hatch and 75% adult emergence were estimated based on a 4.4°C threshold temperature.
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