Canadian Forest Service Publications
Predation on pupae of the spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on the forest floor. 1985. Kelly, B.; Régnière, J. The Canadian Entomologist 117: 33-38.
Available from: Laurentian Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 14486
CFS Availability: PDF (request by e-mail)
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Predation on spruce-budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), pupae on the forest floor was estimated at 72.5% per day. It is unlikely that many adults of the spruce budworm emerge from the forest floor and there would be little bias introduced in the estimation of apparent fecundity by disregarding pupae on the ground. There were large seasonal fluctuations in the rate of predation attributable to various predator groups; the overall rate ranged from 66 to 91% per day. Low temperatures had no detectable effect on vertebrate predation, but reduced invertebrate predation; however, this effect is unlikely to result in much variation in survival of pupae on the forest floor.
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