Canadian Forest Service Publications
The influence of parasitism by Apanteles fumiferanae Vier. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on spring dispersal and changes in the distribution of larvae of the spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). 1987. Nealis, V.G.; Régnière, J. The Canadian Entomologist 119: 141-146.
Available from: Laurentian Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 14764
CFS Availability: PDF (request by e-mail)
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Most emerging 2nd-instar larvae of spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), tested in the laboratory were photopositive and there was no difference in response between healthy larvae and larvae parasitized by Apanteles fumiferanae Vier. However, in the field, parasitized individuals were under-represented among larvae dispersing on silk threads between tree crowns. There is evidence that this was due to the relatively late emergence of parasitized larvae. These parasitized larvae therefore encountered fewer crawling larvae at the tips of branches, and consequently their propensity for dispersing was reduce.
The vertical distribution of dispersing, parasitized larvae caught on sticky traps more closely resembled that of established larvae than it did the vertical distribution of the overwintering population. This indicates that there was some differential redistribution of parasitized and nonparasitized individuals. Despite these differences, the estimate of parasitism by A. fumiferanae based on mid-crown branch samples is justified because it is most consistent and most closely reflects the overall frequency of parasitism.
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