Canadian Forest Service Publications
Some relationships of the spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) to black spruce, Picea mariana (Moench) Voss. 1957. Blais, J.R. Forestry Chronicle 33(4): 364-372.
Available from: Laurentian Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 14898
CFS Availability: PDF (request by e-mail)
Spruce budworm larvae feeding on black spruce had a lower rate of development and a higher rate of mortality than those feeding on white spruce or balsam fir. This was attributable to the lateness in opening of the black spruce buds rather than to the inferior nutritional quality of the foliage. When staminate flowers were present in abundance on black spruce trees, development and survival of the insect was fairly similar to that on the other two species of trees; the flowers provided adequate food at the time of the third and fourth instars thus permitting the larvae to survive until the opening of the shoot buds. The late opening of the black spruce buds explains the relative immunity of this species to severe spruce budworm damage.
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