Canadian Forest Service Publications
Monroes : a type of so-called mud volcanoes in tidal flats. 1973. Dionne, J.-C. J. Sediment. Petrol. 43(3): 848-856.
Issued by: Laurentian Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 15101
Availability: PDF (request by e-mail)
Small mud mounds, here called monroes, occur in tidal flats of the St. Lawrence Estuary, Quebec, Canada. They were observed during break-up at Montmagny, 65 km NE of Quebec City, and at a few other localities. They occur generally in groups, and occasionally in isolation in relatively soft mud, have a rounded conical shape with occasionally a nipple at the top, steep slopes (40° to 65°), and are 5 to 25 cm in diameter, and 5 to 20 cm high. They develop under the icefoot as a result of load pressures which expel air and possibly also water trapped under surficial soft mud layer and thin ice laminae during icefoot formation, in late fall. They characterize mud tidal flats of cold regions.