Canadian Forest Service Publications
The possible use of Bacillus thuringiensis plus chitinase formulation for the control of spruce budworm outbreaks. 1973. Smirnoff, W.A. J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 81(4): 196-200.
Issued by: Laurentian Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 16077
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Ten thousand acres of a balsam fir forest severely infested by Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens was treated with a Bacillus thuringiensis + chitinase formulation by means of Avenger aircraft. In the 70% of the territory that was properly sprayed mortality averaged 88% and foliage protection 70% as determined by visual observations. The results of this experiment were sufficiently good to recommend the use of B. thuringiensis + chitinase formulation for the control of spruce budworm outbreaks.