Canadian Forest Service Publications
Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet development in Pinus sylvestris and Pinus pinaster on medium with and without growth regulators. 1999. Lelu, M.-A.; Bastien, C.; Drugeault, A.; Gouez, M.-L.; Klimaszewska, K. Physiologa Plantarum 105(4): 719-728.
Available from: Laurentian Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 16951
CFS Availability: PDF (request by e-mail)
To initiate somatic embryogenesis in Pinus sylvestris and Pinus pinaster, immature seeds were collected from June to August and the developmental stage of the zygotic embryos was determined. Four developmental stages were distinguished and the response of the zigotic embryos at each of the four developmental stages was compared intra- and inter-species. For this study, modified Litvay's medium (LM), with or without growth regulators, was chosen. Somatic embryogenesis was initiated and maintained on both media but the two species displayed different propensities. In P. sylvestris, the highest initiation frequency was obtained with intact megagametophytes containing embryos at the four-cell stage to the stage of cleavage polyembryony (up to 22 and 9%, respectively). The culure medium had no significant effect on the initiation and proliferation of embryogenic cultures. In P. pinaster, however, the best response occurred from excised zigotic embryos at the stage prior to elongation of cotyledon primordia (up to 40% explants responded), on medium with growth regulators. Another characteristic distinguishing the two species in culture was that in some embryogenic cell lines of P. sylvestris, somatic embryos matured spontaneously when initiated and maintained on medium without growth regulators. Some of these embryos developed into plantlets on the same medium at the frequency of 40%. Therefore, in P. sylvestris all the stages of somatic embryogenesis were achieved on the medium without growth regulators. However, in both species, maturation of a large number of somatic embryos was greatly improved on medium containing high concentration of gellan gum (Gelrite 10 g 1-1 and abscisic acid (60 µM). Cotyledonary somatic embryos subsequently germinated (72 and 80% for P. sylvestris and P. pinaster, respectively) and developed into plantlets (48 and 29%, for P. sylvestris and P. pinaster, respectively). This represents a significant improvement in plantlet recovery from somatic embryos of both species.
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