Canadian Forest Service Publications
Complements, substitutes, budget constraints and valuation. 2000. Hailu, A.; Adamowicz, W.L.; Boxall, P.C. Environmental and Resource Economics 16: 51-68.
Issued by: Northern Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 18182
This study employs a multi-program contingent valuation (CVM) design to simultaneously assess the value of three ecosystem conservation programs in Alberta, Canada. The design is different from most other CVM designs and has several different features including the natural incorporation of direct reminders of substitute/complementary programs and budget constraints. In contrast to the findings of other studies, two of the environmental programs appear to be complements and other combinations of the programs suggest an absence of substitution effects. The multi-program model is more informative and robust in terms of theoretical validity and expected relationships with demographic and recreational characteristics of the respondents.