Canadian Forest Service Publications
Temperature requirements for development of the jack pine budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and two of its parasitoids (Hymenoptera) 1988. Lysyk, T.J.; Nealis, V.G. The Canadian Entomologist 81(4): 1045-1051.
Available from: Great Lakes Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 21544
CFS Availability: Order paper copy (free)
Rates of development at various constant temperature were determined for immature stages of jack pine budworm, Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman, and two parasitoids of its overwintering state, Apanteles fumiferanae (Viereck) and Glypta fumiferanae Viereck. Jack pine budworm larvae (JPB) required 416 degree-days (DD) above 7.5ºC for development from emergence of second instars to pupation, while the pupal stage required 129 DD above 8.0ºC. The second through the seventh instars required 70.8, 54.5, 55.5, 58.7, 72.8, and 115.3 DD above 7.5ºC, respectively. Males developed faster than females during the fifth, sixth, and seventh instars, but females developed faster during the pupal stage. This resulted in synchronized emergence of adults of each sex. Parasitism by A. fumiferanae (AF) slowed development of JPB second, third, fourth, and fifth instars by 2.9, 4.2, 11.1, and 24.5 DD above 7.5ºC, respectively. JPB parasitized by G. fumiferanae (GF) spent 5.3, 7.1, and 11.3 DD above 7.5ºC longer as fourth, fifth, and sixth instars than unparasitized JPM. Larval AF required 352 DD above 7.3ºC for development from emergence of second instars to parasite emergence from the host. Pupae required 108 DD above 9.7ºC. GF larvae required 485 DD above 6.1ºC, and pupae required 167 DD above 7.7ºC. These results suggest that parasitism will affect phenology of JPB in the field. Some recommendations for management of JPB populations that consider parasitoid development and conservation of natural enemies are given.
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