Canadian Forest Service Publications
Interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner and Apanteles fumiferanae Vier. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) 1990. Nealis, V.G.; van Frankenhuyzen, K. The Canadian Entomologist 122: 585-594.
Available from: Great Lakes Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 21550
CFS Availability: PDF (request by e-mail)
Interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis Berlinger and Apanteles fumiferanae Viereck as mortality factors of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens), were investigated by placing parasitized and non-parasitized budworm larvae on foliage with and without spray deposits of a commercial formulation of B. thuringiensis. The effect of larval age (and, thus, the timing of spray applications) was examined by using peak third-instar and peak fourth-instar larvae. We demonstrated that parasitized larvae are more likely to survive exposure to B. thuringiensis because they feed less than non-parasitized larvae and are thus less likely to acquire a lethal dose of the bacterium. Bacillus thuringiensis nevertheless reduced parasitoid populations by 50–60% by killing their hosts before parasitoid emergence. This negative impact of B. thuringiensis on parasitoid survival was decreased when exposure of budworm larvae to spray deposits was delayed from peak third to peak fourth instar. The enhanced survival of parasitoids offset the lower mortality as a result of B. thuringiensis in the delayed sprays. We conclude that B. thuringiensis applied when budworm larval populations are at peak fourth instar or later would complement rather than interfere with the beneficial effects of A. fumiferanae. The implications for budworm management strategies are discussed.
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