Canadian Forest Service Publications

Host-plant influence on the population ecology of the jack pine budworm, Choristoneura pinus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) 1994. Nealis, V.G.; Lomic, P.V. Ecological Entomology 19: 367-373.

Year: 1994

Available from: Great Lakes Forestry Centre

Catalog ID: 21558

Language: English

CFS Availability: PDF (request by e-mail)

Abstract

  1. Newly-emerged, second-instar jack pine budworm (Choristoneura pinus Freeman) establish spring feeding sites preferentially in the pollen cones of their host tree, Pinus banksiana Lamb.
  2. Laboratory studies showed that the rate of establishment and survival of jack pine budworm on pollen cones was high throughout the entire spring emergence period of the insect.
  3. In contrast, the rate of establishment and survival of jack pine budworm on vegetative buds was very poor early in the spring. Vegetative buds were only acceptable as feeding sites to the jack pine budworm for a relatively brief period in late spring.
  4. Field studies showed that the change in population density of jack pine budworm during the spring emergence stage, as expressed by k-values, was a function of the abundance of pollen cones in the stand. Population reduction was greatest in those stands with the fewest pollen cones.
  5. Direct measurement of spring dispersal by jack pine budworm showed that dispersal and consequent losses to the budworm population were greatest in stands with the fewest pollen cones.
  6. We conclude that changes in the density of jack pine budworm are strongly influenced by production of pollen cones in the host stand. Because pollen cone production is related to previous years of defoliation by the jack pine budworm, we propose that pollen cones act as a density-dependent factor governing the density of early-stage jack pine budworm.
  7. The resulting dynamics are compared to those of other budworm species and used to explain observed regional and temporal patterns of jack pine budworm outbreaks.
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