Canadian Forest Service Publications
Seed production in grafted clonal orchards at Longlac, Ontario. 1982. McPherson, J.A.; Morgenstern, E.K.; Wang, B.S.P. Forestry Chronicle 58(1): 31-34.
Issued by: Northern Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 23510
Availability: Order paper copy (free), PDF (request by e-mail)
One seed orchard each of black spruce (Picea mariana) [Mill.] B.S.P.) and white spruce (Picea glauca) [Moench] Voss) was established in northern Ontario gradually during the 1958-78 period. Each species was represented by approximately 45 clones and 450 ramets. During the whole period, records were kept of cone production by individual ramets and of seed production by clones expressed as average number of seeds per cone extracted and germinated. Substantial cone production began 8 years after grafting in black spruce and after 10 years in white spruce. The figures indicated that a clonal orchard of black spruce planted at 5 × 5 m spacing (400 ramets) produces approximately 1 million sound seeds per ha per year; the white spruce equivalent is 900 000. Conditions of cone development and cone storage and damage by insects and fungi can reduce germination of the sound seed harvested by about 20%.