Canadian Forest Service Publications
Survival-Time Analysis of White Spruce during Spruce Budworm Defoliation. 2005. Magnussen, S.; Alfaro, R.I.; Boudewyn, P. Silva Fennica 39(2): 177-189.
Available from: Pacific Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 25498
CFS Availability: PDF (request by e-mail)
Mortality and defoliation (DF%) in 987 white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) trees were followed from 1992 to 2003 during an outbreak of the spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) in 15 white-spruce-dominated uneven-aged stands in the Fort Nelson Forest District near Prince George, British Columbia. Four stands were aerially sprayed with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Defoliation and mortality levels were elevated in non-sprayed stands. The relationship between defoliation and survival-times was captured in a Cox proportional hazard model with a defoliation stress index (DSI), diameter (DBH), crown class (CCL), a random stand effect, Bt-treatment, and number of years of exposure to stand-level defoliations (DYEAR) as predictors. The DSI, optimized for discrimination between surviviors and non-survivors, is the discounted sum of five lagged DF% values. Survival probabilities were predicted with a maximum error of 0.02. Hazard rates increased by 0.06 for every one point increase in DSI, CCL and random stand effects were highly significant. Bt-treatment effects were fully captured by DSI, CCL, and DYEAR.
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