Canadian Forest Service Publications
Cone crops of white and black spruce are predictable. 1967. Eis, S. Forestry Chronicle 43(3): 247-252.
Issued by: Pacific Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 27780
Availability: PDF (download)
In the spring of 1963 an experiment was initiated to find ways of predicting seed crops of white and black spruce in the Interior of British Columbia. Morphology and anatomy of the buds were studied. Initiation of reproductive buds of both species started in late July. Positive identification of the buds at this stage of development required dissection under low magnification. By late August, reproductive buds of white spruce and male buds of black spruce could be distinguished macroscopically by their size and shape. It was difficult to distinguish between white spruce male and female buds and, between black spruce female and vegetative buds in the fall without dissection.