Canadian Forest Service Publications
Non-target effects on aquatic decomposer organisms of imidacloprid as a systemic insecticide to control emerald ash borer in riparian trees. 2007. Kreutzweiser, D.P.; Good, K.P.; Chartrand, D.T.; Scarr, T.A.; Thompson, D.G. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 68: 315 - 325.
Available from: Great Lakes Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 28592
CFS Availability: PDF (request by e-mail)
Imidacloprid is effective against emerald ash borer when applied as a systemic insecticide. Following stem or soil injections to trees in riparian areas, imidacloprid residues could be indirectly introduced to aquatic systems via leaf fall or leaching. Either route of exposure may affect non-target, aquatic decomposer organisms. Leaves from ash trees treated with imidacloprid at two field rates and an intentionally-high concentration were added to aquatic microcosms. Leaves from trees treated at the two field rates contained midacloprid concentrations of 0.8–1.3 ppm, and did not significantly affect leaf-shredding insect survival, microbial respiration or microbial decomposition rates. Insect feeding rates were significantly inhibited at foliar concentrations of 1.3 ppm but not at 0.8 ppm. Leaves from intentionally high-dose trees contained concentrations of about 80 ppm, and resulted in 89–91% mortality of leaf-shredding insects, but no adverse effects on microbial respiration and decomposition rates. Imidacloprid applied directly to aquatic microcosms to simulate leaching from soils was at least 10 times more toxic to aquatic insects than the foliar concentrations, with high mortality at 0.13 ppm and significant feeding inhibition at 0.012 ppm.
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