Canadian Forest Service Publications
Bud development in western hemlock. I. Annual growth cycle of vegetative buds. 1973. Owens, J.N.; Molder, M. Canadian Journal of Botany 51(11): 2223-2231.
Issued by: Pacific Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 28693
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Vegetative apices of mature Tsnga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. were studied throughout the annual growth cycle. Apices become mitotically active during the last week of March. Leaf primordia elongate, causing the buds to swell, while the apex remains small and produces bud scales. Axillary buds are initiated about mid-April. Little shoot elongation occurs before vegetative buds burst in mid-May. After bud burst, rapid shoot elongation occurs for about 7 weeks, during which time the apex also elongates and the rest of the bud scales are initiated. There is a marked increase in mitotic activity in the apex during the transition from bud-scale initiation to leaf initiation, which occurs early in July when the grand phase of shoot elongation is complete. This is believed to be the time when vegetative apices undergo transition to become reproductive apices. Leaf primordia are initiated in rapid succession until mid-August, when two-thirds of the final number of leaves are initiated and the subtending shoot is fully elongated. From mid-August until mid-November, no shoot elongation occurs, leaf primordia are initiated more slowly, and mitotic activity in the apex gradually decreases. After all of the next season's leaves have been initiated, about mid-November, mitotic activity in the apex stops and the vegetative buds become dormant.