Canadian Forest Service Publications
Effects of diapause duration on postdiapause performance of spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) during mass rearing on artificial diet. 2007. van Frankenhuyzen, K.; Ebling, P.M.; Dedes, J.; Pitt, D.G. The Canadian Entomologist 139: 834 - 840.
Issued by: Great Lakes Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 28815
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The spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), has an obligatory winter dormancy period that lasts up to 10 months in the field. In the Great Lakes Forestry Centre rearing facility, neonate larvae spin hibernacula in cheesecloth, which is then stored at 2 °C for between 20 and 30 weeks. Although dormancy survival and synchrony of postemergence development are highest when larvae are stored in the cold for 16–35 weeks, it is not known how cold-storage duration affects spruce budworm performance once diapause has been completed. We exposed approximately 9250 second-instar larvae (belonging to three rearing cohorts) to 2 °C for 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, 34, or 37 weeks and monitored various postdiapause performance variables. Increasing cold storage from 16 to 25 weeks or more resulted in small (approximately 10%) increases in dormancy survival and larval development rates (from second instar to pupation), a larger (up to 23%) increase in pupal mass and realized fecundity (number of eggs laid per female), and an increase of at least 25% in late-instar survival (from fifth instar to pupation). The only variable that was negatively affected was the pupal survival, but the decrease was relatively small. Therefore, storing diapausing larvae for at least 25 weeks optimizes postdiapause performance variables that are important for mass-rearing efficiency.