Canadian Forest Service Publications
Multiple stressor effects of herbicide, pH, and food on wetland zooplankton and a larval amphibian. 2008. Chen, C.Y.; Hathaway, K.M.; Thompson, D.G.; Folt, C.L. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 71: 209 -218.
Issued by: Great Lakes Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 29178
Interactions of herbicides and natural environmental stressors such as pH and food availability are poorly understood. We tested a chemical formulation of triclopyr (Release®) at environmentally relevant test concentrations (0.25 and 0.50 mg L-1) in combination with two levels of pH (pH 5.5 and 7.5), and two levels of food availability (high and low). Population level effects of each stressor alone and in combination with the others were investigated using Simocephalus vetulus, a zooplankton species, and Rana pipiens tadpoles (Gosner stage 25), both common to forest ponds and wetlands. Herbicide treatments resulted in significant decreases in survival of both test species as well as reproduction and development time for S. vetulus at levels 5–10× below predicted worst case environmental concentrations (2.6 mg L-1). This laboratory study demonstrates a probable risk of toxic effects of Release® herbicide which may be significantly increased by low food availability and by low pH at environmentally relevant concentrations.