Canadian Forest Service Publications
Effect of 3 year’s free-air exposure to elevated ozone on mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needle epicuticular wax physicochemical characteristics. 2009. Percy, K.E.; Manninen, S; Häberle, K.-H.; Heerdt, C.; Werner, H.; Henderson, G.; Matyssek, R. Environmental Pollution 157: 1657-1665.
Available from: Atlantic Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 29483
We examined the effect of ozone (O3) on Norway spruce (Picea abies) needle epicuticular wax over three seasons at the Kranzberg Ozone Fumigation Experiment. Exposure to 2 times ambient O3 ranged from 64.5 to 74.2 microliters O3 L-1h AOT40, and 117.1 to 123.2 nl O3 L-1 4th highest daily maximum 8-h average O3 concentration. The proportion of current-year needle surface covered by wax tubes, tube aggregates, and plates decreased (P = 0.011) under 2 times O3. Epistomatal chambers had increased deposits of amorphous wax. Proportion of secondary alcohols varied due to year (P = 0.004) and O3 treatment (P = 0.029). Secondary alcohols were reduced by 9.1% under 2 times O3. Exposure to 2 times O3 increased (P = 0.037) proportions of fatty acids by 29%. Opposing trends in secondary alcohols and fatty acids indicate a direct action of O3 on wax biosynthesis. These results demonstrate O3-induced changes in biologically important needle surface characteristics of 50-year-old field-grown trees.
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