Canadian Forest Service Publications
Relationship of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) emergence and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) bud flush to climate indices. 2009. Thomson, A.J. The Forestry Chronicle 85(4): 625-630.
Issued by: Pacific Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 29887
Temperature records from weather stations across eastern Canada were used with published data on degree-day requirements for spruce budworm larval emergence and balsam fir bud flush to estimate historical patterns of larval emergence and timing of bud flush. The pattern of association was studied using Response Surface Analysis and was found to vary from west to east. April values of the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern, Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Northern Annular Mode (NAM) climate indices showed the most significant relationship to both emergence and bud flush in the 2 Ontario stations, while May values of the PDO and Eastern Pacific (EP) indices were most significant in the 4 Quebec and New Brunswick locations.