Canadian Forest Service Publications
Effect of 3 years’ free-air exposure to elevated ozone on mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needle epicuticular wax physicochemical characteristics. 2009. Percy, K.E.; Manninen, S; Häberle, K.-H.; Heerdt, C.; Werner, H.; Henderson, G.; Matyssek, R. Environmental Pollution 157: 1657-1665.
Issued by: Atlantic Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 30095
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We examined the effect of ozone (O3) on Norway spruce (Picea abies) needle epicuticular wax over three seasons at the Kranzberg Ozone Fumigation Experiment. Exposure to 2X ambient O3 ranged from 64.5 to 74.2 ml O3 l -1 h AOT40, and 117.1 to 123.2 nl O3 -1 4th highest daily maximum 8-h average O3 concentration. The proportion of current-year needle surface covered by wax tubes, tube aggregates, and plates decreased (P = 0.011) under 2X O3. Epistomatal chambers had increased deposits of amorphous wax. Proportion of secondary alcohols varied due to year (P = 0.004) and O3 treatment (P = 0.029). Secondary alcohols were reduced by 9.1% under 2X O3. Exposure to 2X O3 increased (P = 0.037) proportions of fatty acids by 29%. Opposing trends in secondary alcohols and fatty acids indicate a direct action of O3 on wax biosynthesis. These results demonstrate O3-induced changes in biologically important needle surface characteristics of 50-year-old field-grown trees.