Canadian Forest Service Publications
Evaluation of several commercial biocontrol products on European and North American populations of Phytophthora ramorum. 2009. Elliott, M.; Shamoun, S.F.; Sumampong, G.; Masri, S.; Varga, A.; James, D. Biocontrol Science and Technology 19(10): 1007-1021.
Issued by: Pacific Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 30279
Available from the Journal's Web site. †
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Five commercially available biological control products were tested in vitro with seven isolates of Phytophthora ramorum from North American (NA1, NA2), and European (EU1) populations. The in vitro tests included dual culture methods and detached leaf assays on wounded Rhododendron and Camellia leaves. Variability in response to biocontrol agents among isolates of P. ramorum from North American and European populations was examined. In dual culture tests, both Bacillus subtilis products (Companion® and Serenade®) resulted in better inhibition of the NA1 group than NA2 and EU1. Actinovate® (Streptomyces lydicus) was the least effective of the three bacterial biocontrol agents and there was no difference in percent inhibition among P. ramorum lineages. Two products containing Trichoderma spp. were tested: Plant Helper® (T. atroviride) caused 100% inhibition of all lineages of P. ramorum, while SoilGard™ (T. virens) was only about 30% effective. There was great variability among P. ramorum isolates in their response to biocontrol agents. All treatments reduced P. ramorum lesion size on both Rhododendron and Camellia. Combined treatments of Actinovate® with one other BCA did not perform as well as either treatment used individually. Best results were obtained with Serenade® on Rhododendron and Camellia foliage, especially against the NA1 group. Lack of a linear relationship between percent inhibition of P. ramorum by BCAs in vitro and foliar treatments on detached Rhododendron and Camellia leaves indicates that in vitro testing is a poor predictor of BCA performance on plant material.