Canadian Forest Service Publications

Within-tree distribution and attractant sampling of propagative pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: An early diagnosis approach. 2009. Zhao, L.L.; Jiang, P.; Humble, L.M.; Sun, J. Forest Ecology and Management 258(9): 1932-1937.

Year: 2009

Available from: Pacific Forestry Centre

Catalog ID: 31911

Language: English

CFS Availability: PDF (request by e-mail)

Available from the Journal's Web site.
DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2009.07.040

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Abstract

Early detection is of primary importance to enable rapid actions to prevent the spread and introduction of invasive species. The pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a serious invasive and destructive species, is listed as a quarantine pest in the legislation of more than 40 countries. However, Baermann funnel extractions of wood from discs cut from trees at breast-height often do not detect the presence of PWN in infested trees. A serious consequence of such false negatives is the loss of the best window for implementation of eradication or quarantine measures to prevent establishment of incipient PWN infestations. Here we document the within-tree horizontal and vertical distribution of PWN in infested stands in China, using a newly developed kairomonal trapping technique. Our results provide a simple, effective, rapid and non-destructive sampling method that takes into account the changes of PWN within-tree distribution in relation to pine wilt disease (PWD) symptom development. When 60–80% of the foliage has become pale green, PWN is recovered from larger diameter branches. As disease symptoms progress, PWN moves into and down the trunk. As the needles turn yellow, PWN was recovered from the trunk at 1–2 m above the ground. The correlation between the within-tree distribution of PWN and the expression of symptoms indicated a strong association between the distribution of PWN and physiological and pathological changes that develop in attacked pines through the interaction between PWN and tree. This systematic sampling technique takes into account the within-tree distribution of the nematode and should greatly enhance early detection of PWN in field surveys, monitoring and phytosanitary inspections.

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