Canadian Forest Service Publications

Conifer somatic embryogenesis: I. Development. 2002. Klimaszewska, K.; Cyr, D.R. Dendrobiology 48, 31-39.

Year: 2002

Available from: Laurentian Forestry Centre

Catalog ID: 33516

Language: English

CFS Availability: PDF (request by e-mail)


The discovery of conifer somatic embryogenesis (SE) and the subsequent development of SE protocols for a range of genera and species have opened new research opportunities to forest biotechnologists and a means towards mass clonal propagation for the forest industry. This paper provides a general description of the conifer SE process, followed by a review of protocols developed specifically for several conifer species in the Pinaceae family for which production of somatic trees has been demonstrated. Additionally, future research needs, including approaches for developing markers to optimize SE process and the production of high quality embryos, are discussed.

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