Canadian Forest Service Publications
Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée), hemlock looper (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). 2013. Hébert, C.; Brodeur, J. Chapter 28, pages 203-207 in P.G. Mason and D.R. Gillespie, eds. Biological Control Programmes in Canada 2001-2012. CABI International.
Issued by: Laurentian Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 35287
Availability: PDF (request by e-mail)
Plain Language Summary
After the spruce budworm, the hemlock looper is the second most damaging insect pest in Eastern Canada balsam fir forests. Hemlock looper larvae feed first on current year shoots and then on previous year shoots. During a severe outbreak, this feeding behaviour can kill trees, starting in the first year of the outbreak, compared with spruce budworm outbreaks, during which tree mortality may occur after several years.
This book chapter summarizes the research work carried out between 2001 and 2012 relative to the biological control of the hemlock looper. It also covers the parasitoids of natural enemies that attack spruce budworm eggs and thus considerably reduce the impact of outbreaks. One of these parasitoids, Telenomus, can reduce the budworm population by 70% in just a week. Research work is also being carried out on the use of entomopathogenic fungi and other indigenous organisms to control these insects. The authors highlight the importance of obtaining better knowledge of the natural enemies of indigenous insect pests in Canada, and they identify future research requirements, including the need for a better understanding of the impact of climate change on natural enemies, a key part of spruce budworm dynamics.