Canadian Forest Service Publications
Interpretation of forest disturbance using a time series of Landsat imagery and canopy structure from airborne lidar. Ahmed, O.S.; Franklin, S.E.; Wulder, M.A. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing. 39(6): 521-542.
Issued by: Pacific Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 35426
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In this study we examined forest disturbance, largely via forest harvest, over three decades in a coastal temperate forest on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. We analysed how disturbance history relates to current canopy structural conditions by interpreting the relationship between light detection and ranging (lidar) derived canopy structure and forest disturbance trajectories derived from Landsat images to assess if a particular stand structural condition is to result based on disturbance histories. The lidar data were obtained in 2004, and are used to relate forest structural conditions at the end of the Landsat time series (19722004), essentially providing for a measure of resultant structure emerging from the spectral trends captured. Correlation analysis was applied between lidar-derived canopy structure (canopy cover and height) and Landsat spectral indices, such as the Tasseled Cap Angle (TCA), which showed a strong correlation coefficient (r 0.86) with canopy cover. TCA was then used to characterize change in forest disturbance through the full temporal depth of the available Landsat image time series using a trajectory-based characterization method. Approximately 71.5% of the study area was found to correspond to ‘‘stable and undisturbed forest’’. Four disturbance classes (areas characterized by disturbance, disturbance followed by revegetation, ongoing revegetation, and revegetation to stable state) accounted for approximately 10.2%, 5.3%, 2.2%, and 10.5% of the study area, respectively. We evaluated the forest structural and spectral separability between the disturbance classes. In terms of structural variability the mean airborne lidar-derived canopy cover showed clear differentiation between disturbance classes. Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) was used to extract the spectral characteristics for each disturbance class. The SMA-derived fractions were then used to analyse the class separability between the Landsat trajectory derived disturbance classes. The fraction images provided clear distinction between disturbance classes in abundances between sunlit canopy, non-photosynthetic vegetation, shade, and exposed soil. The extracted spectral indices and SMA fractions within the Landsat trajectory derived disturbance classes were used to assess if terminal forest structural conditions can be related to a complex suite of stand development trajectories and processes. The Landsat spectral indices and SMA fractions were separately modeled to estimate lidar-derived mean canopy cover and height data within each disturbance class using multiple regression. The results indicate canopy cover and height regression models developed using spectral indices provided a relatively better estimation than those using SMA endmember fractions. Compared with the relatively regular structure of fully grown undisturbed (stable) forests, the forest disturbance classes typically exhibited complex irregular structure, making it more difficult to accurately estimate their canopy cover and height. As a result, all models developed for the stable forest class performed better than those developed for other forest disturbance classes. Modeling canopy cover and height from Landsat temporal spectral indices resulted in modeled agreement to lidar measures of R2 0.82 (RMSE 0.09) and R2 0.67 (RMSE 3.21), respectively. Our results also indicate moderately accurate predictions of lidar-derived canopy height can be obtained using the Landsat-level disturbance class endmember fractions with R2 0.60 and RMSE 4.19. This study demonstrates the potential of using the over four decade record of Landsat observations (since 1972) to estimate forest canopy cover and height using prestratification of the data based on disturbance trajectories.