Canadian Forest Service Publications
Effects of harvesting forest biomass on water and climate regulation services: a synthesis of long-term ecosystem experiments in Eastern North America. 2016. Caputo, J.; Beier, C.M.; Groffman, P.M.; Burns, D.A.; Beall, F.D.; Hazlett, P.W.; Yorks, T.E. Ecosystems.
Issued by: Great Lakes Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 36453
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Demand for woody biomass fuels is increasing amidst concerns about global energy security and climate change, but there may be negative implications of increased harvesting for forest ecosystem functions and their benefits to society (ecosystem services). Using new methods for assessing ecosystem services based on long-term experimental research, post-harvest changes in ten potential benefits were assessed for ten first-order northern hardwood forest watersheds at three long-term experimental research sites in northeastern North America. As expected, we observed near-term tradeoffs between biomass provision and greenhouse gas regulation, as well as tradeoffs between intensive harvest and the capacity of the forest to remediate nutrient pollution. In both cases, service provision began to recover along with the regeneration of forest vegetation; in the case of pollution remediation, the service recovered to pre-harvest levels within 10 years. By contrast to these two services, biomass harvesting had relatively nominal and transient impacts on other ecosystem services. Our results are sensitive to empirical definitions of societal demand, including methods for scaling societal demand to ecosystem units, which are often poorly resolved. Reducing uncertainty around these parameters can improve confidence in our results and increase their relevance for decision-making. Our synthesis of long-term experimental studies provides insights on the social-ecological resilience of managed forest ecosystems to multiple drivers of change.
Plain Language Summary
Biomass harvesting could have negative implications for the ecosystem services delivered by forests. The objective of this study was to assess post-harvest changes in 10 ecosystem benefits for watersheds at 3 long-term experimental sites in northeastern North America including the Turkey Lakes Watershed in Ontario. The approach involved the development of metrics and thresholds for ecosystem service; water flow regulation, water quality regulation, greenhouse gas regulation and fiber provisioning. Biomass provision was a trade-off in the short-term for greenhouse gas regulation. Biomass harvesting had nominal and transient impacts on water quantity and quality. There were also trade-offs between drought mitigation and removal of nutrient pollution in the short-term. The study provided an approach that assessed forest ecosystem functions using empirically derived societal demands for services and reaffirmed the importance of maintaining forest cover for protecting water and regulating climate.