Canadian Forest Service Publications
A history of biological control in Canadian forests, 1882 to 2014. 2016. MacQuarrie, C.; Lyons, B.; Seehausen, L.; Smith, S. Canadian Entomologist 148: S239-S269.
Issued by: Great Lakes Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 36570
CFS Availability: PDF (request by e-mail)
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Biological control has been an important tactic in the management of Canadian forests for over a century, but one that has had varied success. Here, we review the history of biological control programmes using vertebrate and invertebrate parasitoids and predators against insects in Canadian forests. Since roughly 1882, 41 insect species have been the target of biological control, with approximately equal numbers of both native and non-native species targeted. A total of 161 species of biological control agents have been released in Canadian forests, spanning most major orders of insects, as well as mites and mammals. Biological control has resulted in the successful suppression of nine pest species, and aided in the control of an additional six species. In this review, we outline the chronological history of major projects across Canadian forests, focussing on those that have had significant influence for the development of biological control. The historical data clearly illustrate a rise and fall in the use of biological control as a tactic for managing forest pests, from its dominance in the 1940s and 1950s to its current low level. The strategic implementation of these biological control programmes, their degree of success, and the challenges faced are discussed, along with the discipline’s shifting relationship to basic science and the environmental viewpoints surrounding its use.
Plain Language Summary
In this paper we review the history of biological control projects against forest pest insects. This paper is part of a series reviewing various topics in forest entomology in Canada published in The Canadian Entomologist. In this paper we address the use of vertebrate and invertebrate animals as biological control agents. We summarize the number of biological control agents released across Canada and discuss the number of projects that were successful at controlling their targets. We discuss significant innovations in biological control, and review the history of successes and failures. We also highlight a number of productive areas of research and discuss the likelihood that biological control using animal agents will be an important tactic in the management of Canadian forests in the future.