Canadian Forest Service Publications

Incidence of Monochamus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) species in Nova Scotia, Canada Christmas tree plantations and comparison of panel traps and lures from North America and Europe. 2017. Blatt, S.E.; Bishop, C.; Sweeney, J.D. The Canadian Entomologist 149: 191-203.

Year: 2017

Issued by: Atlantic Forestry Centre

Catalog ID: 39554

Language: English

CFS Availability: PDF (download)

Available from the Journal's Web site.
DOI: 10.4039/tce.2016.55

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Abstract

Christmas trees from Nova Scotia, Canada are banned from import into the European Union (EU) because they may be infected with the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae). Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) species known to vector pinewood nematode are present in Nova Scotia but their abundance in Christmas tree plantations and surrounding stands has not been assessed. We conducted trapping surveys and experiments in 2014 and 2015 to determine the species of Monochamus and their relative abundance in Nova Scotia Christmas tree plantations and the surrounding forests. We also compared commercially available traps and lures from Europe (cross-vane traps, Galloprotect lure = monochamol + ipsenol + α-pinene + 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol) and North America (intercept panel traps, North American lure = monochamol + ipsenol + α-pinene + ethanol) for their efficacy at catching Monochamus species in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment. We captured three Monochamus species (M. scutellatus (Say), M. notatus (Drury), and M. marmorator Kirby) in Nova Scotia Christmas tree plantations. Mean trap catches were greater within the plantations than in the surrounding forests. North American panel traps coated with Fluon® and baited with the European lure caught the most M. notatus and M. scutellatus and would be most suitable for survey and monitoring.

Plain Language Summary

Christmas trees from Nova Scotia are banned from import into the European Union because they may be infected with the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which is harmless to North American conifers but can kill conifers in Europe and Asia. Monochamus beetles of three different species are native to Nova Scotia but their abundance in Christmas tree plantations was unknown. This study used highly attractive pheromone-baited traps to determine the relative activity and abundance of _Monochamus_beetles in Christmas tree plantations at ten sites in Nova Scotia. The study found that trap catches of the beetles were consistently greater inside the Christmas tree plantations than in the surrounding forests. The study also compared two different trap types and lures for efficacy at catching _Monochamus_beetles and found that the intercept panel trap from North America baited with the European lure was the most effective. The study confirms the nematode vectors are relatively abundant in Nova Scotia Christmas tree plantations but further work is necessary to confirm what proportion of beetles actually carries the pinewood nematode and the risk of nematode within Nova Scotia Christmas trees.