Canadian Forest Service Publications

Road avoidance and its energetic consequences for reptiles. 2019. Paterson, James E; Baxter‐Gilbert, James; Beaudry, Frederic; Carstairs, Sue; Chow‐Fraser, Patricia; Edge, Christopher B; Lentini, Andrew M; Litzgus, Jacqueline D; Markle, Chantel E; McKeown, Kassie; Moore, Jennifer A; Refsnider, Jeanine M; Riley, Julia L.; Rouse, Jeremy D; Seburn, David C; Zimmerling, J. Ryan; Davy, Christina M. Ecology and Evolution Vol. 9, Issue 17: 9794-9803.

Year: 2019

Issued by: Atlantic Forestry Centre

Catalog ID: 39889

Language: English

Availability: PDF (download)

Available from the Journal's Web site.
DOI: 10.1002/ece3.5515

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Abstract

Roads are one of the most widespread human‐caused habitat modifications that can increase wildlife mortality rates and alter behavior. Roads can act as barriers with variable permeability to movement and can increase distances wildlife travel to access habitats. Movement is energetically costly, and avoidance of roads could therefore impact an animal's energy budget. We tested whether reptiles avoid roads or road crossings and explored whether the energetic consequences of road avoidance decreased individual fitness. Using telemetry data from Blanding's turtles (Emydoidea blandingii; 11,658 locations of 286 turtles from 15 sites) and eastern massasaugas (Sistrurus catenatus; 1,868 locations of 49 snakes from 3 sites), we compared frequency of observed road crossings and use of road‐adjacent habitat by reptiles to expected frequencies based on simulated correlated random walks. Turtles and snakes did not avoid habitats near roads, but both species avoided road crossings.Compared with simulations, turtles made fewer crossings of paved roads with low speed limits and more crossings of paved roads with high speed limits. Snakes made fewer crossings of all road types than expected based on simulated paths. Turtles traveled longer daily distances when their home range contained roads, but the predicted energetic cost was negligible: substantially less than the cost of producing one egg. Snakes with roads in their home range did not travel further per day than snakes without roads in their home range. We found that turtles and snakes avoided crossing roads, but road avoidance is unlikely to impact fitness through energetic expenditures. Therefore, mortality from vehicle strikes remains the most significant impact of roads on reptile populations.

Plain Language Summary

Roads are one of the most common types of infrastructure and can have considerable impact on organisms through fragmenting habitat and resulting in mortality when animals are struck and killed by vehicles. The way animals perceive roads determines the way they interact with them, animals can cross, avoid, or use roads as habitat. The way animals interact with roads is important in forestry because forest access roads typically have low traffic volumes and the presence of a road is major potential effect. The present paper explores how two species alter their movement patterns and thus energetic costs in response to roads. The paper finds that both species avoid crossing all roads and move greater distances when roads are present. Neither species avoids crossing roads completely. The energetic cost of the additional movement is minimal when compared to the energetic cost of reproduction. In the context of forestry, the results of this paper show that animals avoid crossing roads regardless of road surface type, but the impact is not likely to have major consequence unless the animals are prevented from reaching a critical habitat or they are struck and killed by a vehicle on the road surface.